What are the parameters to be Analyzed for the wastewater treatment?
Wastewater treatment is a crucial process that aims to purify the contaminated water before its discharge into the environment. The process involves the removal of pollutants and contaminants such as organic matter, nutrients, suspended solids, oil and grease, and pathogens from the wastewater. The treated wastewater is then discharged into rivers, lakes, or oceans, depending on the treatment plant's location.
Let us discuss the parameters that are analyzed for the wastewater treatment process and the limits of various pollutants in the treated water of sewage treatment plants (STP) and effluent treatment plants (ETP).
Parameters to be analyzed for wastewater treatment:
The wastewater treatment process involves several steps, each of which requires specific parameters to be analyzed to ensure efficient treatment. Some of the essential parameters that need to be analyzed are:
1. Biological oxygen demand (BOD)
BOD is the amount of dissolved oxygen required by microorganisms to break down organic matter present in the wastewater. A high BOD level indicates that the wastewater contains a high level of organic matter, which can cause oxygen depletion in water bodies. The acceptable limit of BOD in the treated water is 30 mg/L for STP and 100 mg/L for ETP.
2. Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
COD is a measure of the amount of oxygen required to chemically oxidize the organic and inorganic compounds in the wastewater. COD is a useful parameter to determine the efficiency of the treatment process, especially in the case of industrial wastewater. The acceptable limit of COD in the treated water is 250 mg/L for STP and 500 mg/L for ETP.
The pH level of the wastewater is an essential parameter to determine the acidity or alkalinity of the water. The acceptable limit of pH in the treated water is between 6.5 and 8.5.
4. Oil and grease
Oil and grease are contaminants that can cause harm to aquatic life and affect the water's clarity. The acceptable limit of oil and grease in the treated water is 10 mg/L for STP and 15 mg/L for ETP.
5. Total suspended solids (TSS)
TSS is a measure of the total amount of suspended particles, such as silt, organic matter, and inorganic matter, present in the wastewater. The acceptable limit of TSS in the treated water is 30 mg/L for STP and 100 mg/L for ETP.
Nitrogen is a vital nutrient required for plant growth, but excessive nitrogen in the water can lead to eutrophication, which can cause the growth of algae and other aquatic plants, leading to oxygen depletion in water bodies. The different forms of nitrogen that need to be analyzed are:
- Nitrogen gas (N2)
N2 is the most abundant form of nitrogen present in the atmosphere and does not pose any harm to the environment.
- Ammonia (NH3)
NH3 is a toxic pollutant that can cause harm to aquatic life and humans. The acceptable limit of NH3 in the treated water is 5 mg/L for STP and 10 mg/L for ETP.
- Nitrate (NO3)
NO3 is a form of nitrogen that can cause eutrophication and lead to the growth of algae and other aquatic plants. The acceptable limit of NO3 in the treated water is 10 mg/L for STP and 20 mg/L for ETP.
- Nitrogen gas liquid (NGL)
NGL is a measure of the total amount of nitrogen present in the water, including all forms of nitrogen. The acceptable limit of NGL in the treated water is 50 mg/L for STP and 100 mg/L for ETP.
In conclusion, wastewater treatment is a complex process that requires the analysis of several parameters to ensure that the treated water meets the required quality standards. The key parameters that need to be analyzed during wastewater treatment include BOD, COD, pH, oil and grease, TSS, and nitrogen. These parameters help to determine the effectiveness of biological and chemical treatment processes and ensure that the treated water is safe for discharge into the environment.
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