The pH scale determines how basic or acidic a substance is. We consume a variety of drinks with varying pH levels during our daily lives. The acidity of soda and coffee also varies. Since, pH influences how substances interact with one another and with our bodies, pH is a crucial characteristic.
Continue reading to understand what is pH, the pH formula, how to calculate pH, why pH is a crucial measurement, as well as the pH value of water.
What is pH (Potential of Hydrogen) and What is the pH value of water?
A substance's pH level indicates how basic or acidic it is. pH ranges from 0 to 14. The substance is basic if its pH level is greater than 7. The term "acidic" refers to a material with a pH below 7. The substance is neutral when pH value is equal to 7.
Equation of pH
The pH equation is:
pH = -log ([H+])
What is pH Scale?
The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, with 14 being the final number. The most acidic substances will be near to 0, while the most basic or alkaline substances will be close to 14. These figures allow for the classification of substances depending on their pH.
More H+ ions will be present and the acid will be stronger at lower pH values. The categorization range for the most basic or alkaline substances are between 7 and 14.
How to determine pH value?
Calculating pH is as simple. An acid will occasionally totally dissociate into ions in solution. Thus, it is simple to determine the hydrogen ion concentration.
For instance: Assume that HCl entirely dissociates in solution in a 0.2 molar solution. This indicates that there is 1 mole of H+ ions for every mole of hydrochloric acid (HCl is a strong acid, so it will completely dissociate). Therefore, the hydrogen ion concentration is 0.2 M. According to the pH formula, the hydrogen ion concentration, which is 0.2 molar, is the negative log of the pH value.
pH = -log([H+]) = -log(0.1) = 0.699
If the acid does not fully dissociate, it will give you the acid's Ka, and you must use that information to compute the pH.
Equation for pH Conversion to H+
In some circumstances, we need to convert from the pH to the molar concentration of H+ ions. To do this, we must raise 10 to the power of the negative pH and then invert the logarithm from the first equation.
[H+] = 10-pH
With the aid of this equation, we can determine that [H+] = 10-7 M for solutions with a pH of 7. When a solution has a pH of 14, [H+] equals 10-14 M.
How is pH measured?
A substance's pH can be determined in a variety of methods, whether in a lab, at home, or out.
1. pH probe: It is a device with an arm that contains two tiny electrodes. The electrodes react to the pH of the solution when the arm is submerged in it. This instrument comes in both large and tiny portable variants.
2. Litmus paper: Litmus paper is a thin strip of paper that, when dipped in a solution with a specific pH level, changes colour.
3. Chemical Indicators: Chemical indicators are substances that, when added to a solution, cause the colour of the solution to change in response to pH variations. Litmus, bromthymol blue, and phenolphthalein are a few popular examples. These are a wonderful tool to determine a substance's pH range, despite the fact that they won't give you the exact pH.
What is the pH value of water?
At 25 °C, the pH of pure water (H20) is 7, but when this equilibrium is subjected to atmospheric carbon dioxide, the pH of the water decreases to about 5.2 because the airborne CO2 dissolves in the water and produces carbonic acid.
Indian Standard Specifications for Drinking Water as per IS: 10500 – 1983
pH = 6.5 - 8.5 and beyond this range the water will affect the mucous membrane or the water supply
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