Numerous mammals, including humans, can harbour cryptosporidium in their intestines. It is 4-6 microns in diameter, has an egg-like shape, can survive for a long time outside the body, and can be directly transferred from one person to another through contact with carrier animals, or consumption of tainted water or food.
Cryptosporidiosis outbreaks can occur wherever that has been contaminated by human or animal faeces, including lakes, streams, and reservoirs. As a result, it's important to keep an eye on the water's quality, particularly its cryptosporidium content, and choose an appropriate water treatment method for the removal of cryptosporidium.
How to efficiently eliminate and remove cryptosporidium from water?
Let's look at the following techniques:
· Disinfection of Drinking Water
Bleaching powder (5% NaOCl) in bactericidal levels is ineffective against Cryptosporidium oocysts, and can withstand exposure for several hours. Although, higher doses can kill oocysts, they also produce higher doses of the by-products, chlorite and chlorate of chlorine dioxide.
Ozone has a strong oxidising capacity, which can convert organic substances in water into nutrients for bacteria in water, and accelerate bacterial development. Ozone is effective at inactivating oocysts, but it also takes high doses and has negative effects after use. Some bacteria can be harmful, especially to those with impaired immune systems.
· Membrane Pleated Filters
The sieving effect of membrane pores, adsorption on water-borne particles, followed by membrane removal, adsorption on the surface of the filter membranes, and the removal of filter cake on membrane surface can be used to describe, the mechanism of eliminating cryptosporidium oocysts via filtration.
In the range of 4 to 6 microns, cryptosporidium oocysts may deform and pass through a retention filter, with a retention threshold greater than or equal to 3 micron. It is advised to choose a filter system with a cut-off threshold of less than or equal to 1 micron, in order to efficiently retain these microorganisms.
· UV Oxidation Process
Because, UV disinfection is a physical disinfection approach that doesn't involve adding chemicals to the water, or creating by-products of the disinfection process, it has largely replaced older chemical disinfection methods. Investigations have demonstrated that UV is a type of highly potent sterilant, which may successfully inactivate bacteria that are challenging for chemical agents to be effective against.
UV light is mostly used to kill bacteria and other germs in water to disinfect and sterilise it. In order to achieve the goal of disinfection, the organism's nucleic acid absorbs the light energy of UV rays. This damages and destroys the nucleic acid's function while also killing the germs. When larger inactivation rates are necessary due to low water quality, the economics of UV disinfection are much more apparent.
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