The process of evaluating a project’s anticipated environmental effects while taking into account related socio-economic, cultural, and human-health effects, both positive and negative, is known as an environmental impact assessment (EIA).
What is (EIA) Environment Impact Assessment in India?
The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a tool used to evaluate a project's potential environmental, social, and economic implications before making a choice. It aims to find techniques for minimising adverse effects, adapt projects to the local environment, anticipate environmental effects early in the project planning and design process, and provide decision-makers with forecasts and options.
The Environment Protection Act of 1986, which has numerous stipulations on the methodology and procedure of EIA, provides legal support for EIA in India.
The goal of environmental impact assessment
An environmental impact assessment's goal is to determine how a proposed project or development, would affect the environment in connection to its associated economic, cultural, and health implications.
Simply described, an EIA is a procedure used to evaluate the environmental effects of a planned development. It is a key management tool for ensuring that natural resources are utilised as efficiently as possible for sustainable development. Environmental protection, optimal resource use, cost and time savings and other benefits can be achieved, by taking environmental effects and their mitigation into account, early in the project planning cycle.
History of Environmental Impact assessment (EIA) in India
Around 20 years ago, India first started using environmental impact assessments.
· The process began in 1976-1977 when the Planning Commission asked the Department of Science and Technology, to investigate the river-valley projects from an environmental perspective.
· Environmental clearance by the Central Government was an administrative choice made, without statutory backing before to 1994.
· Under the Environmental (Protection) Act of 1986, the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests promulgated an EIA notification on January 27, 1994, requiring environmental clearance (EC) before expanding any activity, or initiating new projects which are listed in Schedule-1 of the notification.
· The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC), released updated EIA regulations in September 2006.
· The announcement states that a variety of projects, such as those involving mining, thermal power plants, river valleys, infrastructure (roads, highways, ports, harbours, and airports), and businesses like electroplating or foundry units, now require environmental permission.
· The Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change, established the Environmental Information System (ENVIS) in 1982 to collect, compile, store, retrieve, and disseminate data related to the environmental sector. This serves as a distributed web network with a subject-specific database. ENVIS' principal objective is to coordinate all national efforts to collect, shop, exchange, and use environmental data, for better management of environmental assessment activities.
· In contrast to the EIA Notification of 1994, the state government is now in charge of authorising projects, depending on the scope and capability of the project.
The EIA method: Method of Environmental Impact Assessment in India
The steps of an EIA process are determined by the needs of the nation or donor. The application of the main stages is a fundamental standard of good practise, and the majority of EIA processes share a common structure.
These steps make up the environment impact assessment, and each one is equally crucial in assessing how well the project will perform overall. The EIA process frequently begins with screening to ensure that time and resources are concentrated on the projects, which matter to the environment, and it frequently concludes with some sort of follow-up on the execution of the decisions, and actions taken as a result of an EIA report.
Below is a summary of the steps of the EIA process:
Step-1) Discussion: It is mainly of the planned project and its geographic, ecological, social, and chronological context, as well as any potential off-site investments. It also demonstrates the necessity of any plan for social development or relocation.
Step-2) Baseline data: Specifies pertinent physical, biological, and socioeconomic circumstances in and around the project site, including all changes predicted prior to project start.
Depending on whether the site is close to sensitive regions like National Parks, sanctuaries, or archaeological monuments, the present regulations in India set a radius of 10 or 25 kilometres around it. It also considers on-going and future construction projects that are nearby, but not directly related to the project.
Step-3) Screening: The screening phase of an EIA assesses whether the project under consideration requires one and, if so, what level of analysis is necessary.
Step-4) Scoping: This phase identifies the main concerns and effects that need more research. Also, the scope and duration of the study are established at this step.
Step-5) Impact analyses: This EIA stage identifies, forecasts, and evaluates the significance of the proposed projects anticipated environmental and social impacts.
Step-6) Mitigation: In the EIA process, this step suggests ways to lessen and prevent the potential negative environmental effects of development activities.
Step-7) Reporting: This stage informs the decision-making body and other interested parties, of the EIA's findings in the form of a report.
Step-8) Review of EIA: It assesses the suitability and efficacy of the EIA report, and offers the data required for making decisions.
Step-9) Risk assessment: EIA methods include inventory analysis, hazard likelihood, and hazard index.
Step-10) Decision Making: It chooses whether to accept, reject, or modify the project further.
This phase is initiated after the project is commissioned. It confirms that the project's effects don't exceed the permitted levels, and that the mitigation measures are implemented in accordance with the EIA report's recommendations.
Participants in the EIA Procedure
1: The project's proponents.
2: Environmental consultant who prepares the EIA, on behalf of the project proponent.
3: Pollution Control Board (State or National).
4: The MoEFCC Regional Impact Assessment Agency Center.
Important Elements of the 2006 EIA Notification & Amendments
1: By classifying the development projects into two categories, Category A (national level appraisal) and Category B (state level appraisal), the Environment Impact Assessment Notification of 2006 decentralised the environmental clearance projects.
2: Impact Assessment Agency (IAA) and the Expert Appraisal Committee (EAC) evaluate Category A projects at the national level, and Category B projects are informed at the state level.
3: To give approval for the Category B process, the SEAC and SEIAA was established.
4: Environmental clearance is necessary for Category A projects, thus they are exempt from the screening procedure.
5: Projects in Category B go through a screening process and are divided into two categories.
· Projects in category B-1 (Mandatorily requires EIA)
· Projects in category B-2 (These do not require EIA)
As a result, projects in categories A and B go through the entire EIA process, but those in category B2 are not subject to the full EIA procedure.
As responsible citizens of India, and environment lovers, we at Netsol Water take pledge to protect our environment, save fresh water and treat wastewater.
Netsol Water is the leading manufacturer, supplier, and exporter of a quality selection of water treatment plants, and wastewater treatment plants in India.
We provide various capacities of Industrial and Commercial RO Plants, water softeners, ETPs, DM plants, Ultra filtration plants, UV water purification systems, STPs, ZLD plants, and other goods and services. We also provide water and wastewater treatment solutions to businesses including pulp & paper, automotive, beverages, textile, pharmaceutical, refineries, hotels, schools, office buildings, hospitals, among others.
Call us at +91 9650608473 or email at email@example.com for further information.