What is sewage treatment plant?
Sewage treatment (also known as domestic wastewater treatment or municipal wastewater treatment) is a type of wastewater treatment that removes contaminants from sewage to produce an effluent that is suitable for discharge to the environment or reuse, preventing water pollution from raw sewage discharges.
Sewage is made up of wastewater from homes and businesses, as well as perhaps pre-treated industrial waste. There are numerous sewage treatment processes from which to choose. Decentralized systems (including on-site treatment systems) to huge centralised systems incorporating a network of pipelines and pump stations (referred to as sewerage) that transport sewage to a treatment plant are examples. The sewers will also convey urban runoff (stormwater) to the sewage treatment facility in communities that have a combined sewer.
Sewage treatment usually consists of two stages: primary and secondary treatment, with a tertiary treatment stage that includes polishing operations and nutrient removal included in advanced treatment. Using aerobic or anaerobic biological processes, secondary treatment can reduce organic matter (measured as biological oxygen demand) in sewage.
There have been numerous sewage treatment technologies created, the majority of which use biological treatment processes. When selecting an appropriate technology, engineers and decision makers must consider technical and economic criteria, as well as quantitative and qualitative characteristics of each option.
The selection criteria
The following are frequently used as selection criteria: desired effluent quality, anticipated construction and operation costs, land availability, energy requirements, and sustainability considerations. Sewage is commonly handled on-site by various on-site sanitation systems in developing countries and rural areas with low population densities, rather than being carried through sewers. Septic tanks connected to drain fields, on-site sewage systems (OSS), vermin filter systems, and other systems are among them. Advanced and somewhat expensive sewage treatment plants, on the other hand, may incorporate tertiary treatment with disinfection and maybe even a fourth treatment stage to eliminate micropollutants in places that can afford them.
On a global scale, approximately 52% of sewage is treated. However, sewage treatment rates in different countries are extremely disparate. For example, while high-income countries clean over 74% of their sewage, developing countries only treat 4.2 percent on average.
Sewage treatment is an element of the sanitation field. Human waste and solid waste management, as well as stormwater (drainage) management, are all part of sanitation."Sewage treatment plant" and "wastewater treatment plant" are commonly used interchangeably.The overall purpose of sewage treatment is to produce an effluent that can be discharged into the environment with little water contamination or that can be reused in a useful manner.
This is accomplished by filtering the sewage for pollutants. It's a type of waste disposal.Transform dissolved and particulate biodegradable components (especially organic matter) into acceptable end products, transform and remove nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), remove or inactivate pathogenic organisms, and remove specific trace organic constituents are some of the treatment objectives for biological sewage treatment (micropollutants). Sewage sludge is produced by some forms of sewage treatment and can be processed before being safely disposed of or reused. In some cases, processed sewage sludge is referred to as "bio-solids" and can be utilised as a fertiliser.
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