What is the definition of surface water?
Surface water is "any body of water above earth, including streams, rivers, lakes, marshes, reservoirs, and creeks." Despite being salt water, the ocean is also considered as surface water.
Surface water is classified into three types:
1: Perennial –In Perennial, or permanent, surface water lasts all year and is replaced by groundwater when there is minimal precipitation.
2: Ephemeral - Ephemeral surface water, also known as semi-permanent surface water, persists for just a portion of the year. Small streams, lagoons, and water holes are examples of ephemeral surface water.
3: Man-made - Artificial structures, such as dams and built wetlands, contain man-made surface water.
What factors contribute to eutrophication of surface water?
Eutrophication is defined as "excessive plant and algal development caused by an increase in the availability of one or more limiting growth elements required for photosynthesis, such as sunshine, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen fertilizers."
Eutrophication occurs naturally over millennia when lakes and rivers fill up with garbage. Increased agricultural and industrial human activity, however, has exacerbated these natural phenomena through both point-source discharges and non-point loadings of limiting nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus.
Three major causes contribute to eutrophication:
1: Fertilizers - Agricultural methods and the application of fertilizers in the soil both contribute to nutrient build-up. When these nutrients reach high concentrations and the earth can no longer absorb them, they are transported by rain into rivers and groundwater, which then flow into our surface water habitats.
2: Wastewater discharge - Throughout the world, and particularly in poorer nations, wastewater is dumped directly into surface water bodies. This causes a large amount of nutrients to be released, which encourages the growth of algae.
3: Reduced self-purification ability - Over time, lakes and rivers get polluted with alien things such as organic debris and human waste. These foreign items have the ability to absorb significant amounts of nutrients and contaminants.The build-up of these things in the surface water basin enhances the interactions between water and the foreign objects, resulting in the resuspension of nutrients at the bottom of the surface water.
What exactly are algae?
In their most basic form, algae are a category of aquatic organisms that can undertake photosynthesis.
Most people are familiar with the most common species of algae, such as sea-weed, pond scum, and algal blooms that occur in lakes. However, there is a lot more to know and understand about algae than what we remove from our garden ponds.
Where can you find algae?
Algae may be found in practically any body of fresh or saline water. Because most algae need sunlight to develop, the surface provides a perfect habitat for algae to flourish.
Algae, which may grow in a variety of aquatic settings, can thrive in both freshwater lakes and saltwater oceans.Algae is also incredibly robust, since it can tolerate and grow in a wide variety of temperatures, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, acidity, and turbidity.
What effect does algae have on surface water?
The influence of algae on surface water may have a range of beneficial and bad consequences on the ecology and the quality of drinking water derived from that body of water. There are thousands of distinct species of algae, each of which has a particular impact on surface water.
Algae and its influence on surface water are quickly becoming a water concern that must be addressed, from algae that helps generate oxygen to algae that releases hazardous chemicals.
How to Prevent Lake Algae Blooms?
T?here are various methods for preventing the accumulation and proliferation of Algae blooms:
1. Add Pond aeration and water movement by using aerators or fountains.
2. Collect and dispose of waste, which is a typical source of extra nutrients and germs.
3. Place rain barrels across the neighbourhood to decrease polluting runoff.
4. Use landscaping techniques such as xeriscaping to boost groundwater filtration before the water enters the pond or lake.
5. Remove grass clippings and leaves from ponds and lakes to avoid decomposition.
6. To reduce nutrient-rich runoff, use phosphorus-free fertilizers and detergents.
7. Seek the advice of a certified water-management specialist who can test the water quality on a regular basis and provide necessary solutions.
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