What are the various types of Aerobic Treatment Systems?
An aerobic treatment system (ATS), is a sewage treatment system that uses an aerobic rather than anaerobic digestion process. The system provides a high-quality secondary effluent that can be sterilized and used for surface irrigation.
Aerated treatment systems come in a variety of configurations-
Fixed-film systems and continuous flow, suspended growth aerobic systems are the two most common designs for aerobic systems. Both types of systems have similar pre-treatment and effluent handling, with the aeration stage being the only difference.
1: Fixed Film systems
A porous media is used in fixed film systems to provide a bed for the biomass film that digests the waste material in the wastewater. Fixed film systems come in a variety of shapes and sizes, but they can be divided into two kinds (though some systems may combine both methods).
The first employs a stationary media and varies the wastewater flow to alternately submerge and expose the film to air, while the second uses a stationary media and varies the wastewater flow to alternately submerge and expose the film to air. For aerobic digestion to occur, the biomass must be exposed to both wastewater and air in both circumstances. The film itself can be made of any porous material that is suited for the job, such as moulded plastic or peat moss. Simple systems rely on intermittent, gravity-driven wastewater flow to give air and wastewater exposure on a regular basis.
The rotating biological contactor (RBC), which uses discs rotating slowly on a horizontal shaft, is a common moving media system. At any given time, over 40% of the discs are submerged, and the shaft rotates at a pace of one or two revolutions per minute.
2: Continuous flow, suspended growth aerobic systems
As the name indicates, CFSGAS systems are intended to tolerate continuous flow and do not offer a bed for a bacterial film, instead depend on bacteria floating in the effluent. An air pump, which pushes air through the aeration chamber and provides continual stirring of the wastewater in addition to oxygenation, is often used to provide suspension and aeration. Some systems are built to manage higher-than-normal volumes of biomass in wastewater and may include a medium to enhance fixed film bacterial growth.
3: Retrofit or portable aerobic systems
Another increasingly prevalent application of aerobic treatment is to repair failing or failed anaerobic systems by retrofitting an existing system with an aerobic element. This product class, known as aerobic remediation, is intended to remediate biologically failed and failing anaerobic distribution systems by significantly lowering the effluent's biochemical oxygen demand (BOD-5) and total suspended solids (TSS). The formed bio-mass is reversed when the BOD-5 and TSS levels are reduced. Furthermore, high-dissolved-oxygen effluent and aerobic bacteria migrate to the distribution component and decompose the bio-mass.
4: Composting toilets
Composting toilets are meant to treat only toilet waste rather than general household waste water and are often utilized with water-free toilets rather than flush toilets linked with the aforementioned forms of aerobic treatment systems. Because these systems handle waste as a wet solid rather than liquid suspension, urine and faeces are separated during treatment to maintain the proper moisture level in the system.
Urine and faeces are broken down separately within the chamber by aerobic bacteria as well as fungi, arthropods, and earthworms. Treatment durations are extremely long, with a minimum interval between solid waste removals of a year. During treatment, the amount of solid waste is reduced by 90%, with the majority being transformed into water vapor and carbon dioxide. Pathogens are removed from waste by exposing it to hostile circumstances for extended periods of time in the treatment chamber.
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