Sludge and its production
Sludge refers to semi-solid waste that has been filtered out of sewage liquids. The final result of wastewater treatment, whether biological or physical/chemical, is sludge, or residual solids.
The solids content of primary sludge ranges from 3 to 6%.
Composition of Sludge
The compositions of sewage sludge varies depending on the composition of wastewater and the processes used for its treatment. Irrespective of its origins, sludge contains water, organic and inorganic materials and suspended solids. Sludge of different qualities are produced from different biological unit operations.
Sludge from wastewater is made up of both inorganic and organic materials, as well as high concentrations of some plant nutrients and much lower concentrations of numerous trace elements and organic chemicals, as well as pathogens.
Sludge is digested anaerobically and dehydrated, accounting for 1% of the wastewater entering the plant. Every one of us contributes to the annual production of 70-100kg of dewatered sewage sludge, which equates to 20-25kg of dry solids.
Sewage sludge can be dissected either as an organic and nutrient resource to be used beneficially or as a waste material to be disposed of. Sludge production has increased dramatically with the implementation of environmental programs to improve the quality of discharges from wastewater treatment plant.
What are the various Frictional Losses in Gravitated Sludge Pipelines?
During primary treatment, sludge pipelinesare exposed to the harshness of several substances, such as:
2: Ferrous chloride;
4: Alkaline lime slurry;
5: Other clarifying and thickening chemicals.
Gravity or pumps can be used to transport sludge. When primary sludge is removed from clarifiers, for example, it is sometimes done by gravity and sometimes by direct suction with pumps.
Size and Head of pipe
For gravity withdrawal, the diameter of sludge withdrawal pipe should be at least 8 inches (20.3 cm) and 6 inches (15.2 cm) in diameter for pump suction and discharge lines. If gravity withdrawal is used, the available head on the discharge pipe should be sufficient to deliver a velocity of at least 2 fps (0.61 m/s).
Gravity pipelines for sludge should be laid on uniform grade and alignment. The slope of gravity discharge pipelines should not be less than 3%. Provisions should be made for cleaning, draining, and flushing of the sludgepipelines.
Friction losses in Gravity Sludge Pipelines
Use Manning's method to calculate friction loss as if it were flowing with water.
A friction compounding factor (F) is applied to this friction loss. Now, calculate the sludge's solids content (P).
F = 2.88 + (0.176PP) – (0.866P) for undigested sludge
F = 1.52 + (0.041PP) – (0.227P) for digested sludge
Add a 10% safety factor to your calculations.
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