In a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) method for water treatment, all water is collected and pollutants are transformed to solid waste. While many water treatment technologies strive to enhance freshwater recovery while minimizing waste, ZLD is the most difficult to accomplish because of the cost and complexity of recovery increase as the wastewater concentration increases.
Higher concentrations of salinity, scaling agents, and organics all add to the expenses of managing them. Connecting water treatment technology that can treat wastewater as toxins get more concentrated on how ZLD is accomplished.
Advantages of ZLD
Targeting zero liquid discharge for an industrial process or facility has a variety of advantages:
- Waste management costs are reduced when waste volumes are reduced.
- By recycling water on-site, you can save money on water purchases and reduce danger. Recycling on-site can result in lower treatment demands when compared to treating to meet strict environmental discharge regulations.
- Reducing the number of trucks used for off-site waste water disposal, as well as the greenhouse gas emissions and risk of neighborhood traffic accidents.
- The regulatory risk profile for future licenses can improve
- Some techniques, such as ammonium sulphate fertilizer or sodium chloride salt for ice melting, can restore important resources.
- The distillate, also known as condensate, can be reused as process water.
What are the possible applications of zero liquid discharge?
1: One doesn’t have access to a nearby disposal point
Dumping liquid waste is not an option if one does not have a sewer connection. Even if one treats the contaminants to remove as many solids as is required by law, transporting the liquid waste to a suitable discharge area can be prohibitively expensive. By switching to a ZLD platform for the wastewater solutions, one will simply have to send solid trash, which is considerably easier to manage.
2: One can take advantage of economies of scale
ZLD might not make sense for tiny batches of wastewater because it still requires several distinct processes, each with its own overheads and expenses. However, the cost of ZLD does not scale with the size of the wastewater. In other words, as wastewater streams rise, ZLD becomes more cost viable. Some of the most effective ZLD technologies are used by businesses that produce hundreds of thousands of gallons of wastewater every day. ZLD, on the other hand, can be useful for small batches of highly contaminated wastewater where the costs of transporting liquid waste are prohibitive.
3: The town has stringent water treatment rules
When a factory opens in a new area, it's not uncommon for them to overlook the town's water regulations. Other variables, unfortunately, get in the way, and when the factory tries to dump all of its liquid waste, the town refuses to allow the whole amount. ZLD circumvents these town restrictions by eliminating the necessity for liquid waste discharge altogether.
4: The operations demand more water than one have on hand
Let's imagine one needs 100,000 gallons of water for the daily operations, but the municipality only allows one to buy 50,000 gallons. Then one can be confronted with a dilemma: reduce the production and risk losing customers, or try to find and ship water from somewhere else. Instead, one can rely on ZLD to recover the water one consume and supplement it only when necessary by purchasing more water.
5: The source water will require extensive purification
When the location and industry need one to treat incoming process water to ensure it meets the operational requirements, it may be worthwhile to reuse as much wastewater as feasible. ZLD allows one to recover and recycle nearly all of the water that passes through the facility. Onedoesn’t need to spend time and money on the front end preparing that water for usage because one has already treated it.
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