To meet technology-based treatment standards, innovative processes for treating industrial wastewater containing heavy metals, frequently include toxicity reduction technologies.
Let's understand the most recent developments and technical feasibility, of various treatments for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater.
Need of new developments in removing heavy metals
Heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, As, Pb, and Zn, are the most hazardous among chemical-intensive industries, due to the discharge of large amounts of metal-contaminated wastewater.
Heavy metals can be absorbed by living organisms due to their high solubility in aquatic environments. These can accumulate in high concentrations in the human body once they enter the food chain. If the metals are consumed in excess of the permitted concentration, they can cause serious health problems.
As a result, metal-contaminated wastewater must be treated before being discharged into the environment.
What are the new trends in removing heavy metals from wastewater?
Because, of their high efficiency, low space occupancy, and simple design, membranes and their filtration technologies have demonstrated several advantages, in the field of heavy metal removal.
Membrane filtration processes have been classified as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, electrodialysis, and nanofiltration.
When dealing with low transmembrane pressures, this method is used to remove dissolved and colloidal materials. Because, the pores in this type of membrane are larger than the metal ions (as hydrated ions), only low molecular weight complexes can pass through unhindered.
Reverse Osmosis (RO)
A semi-permeable membrane is used in this method to separate the pollutants, while allowing only the purified fluid to pass through. The method has the ability to remove a wide variety of species, and is widely used in the desalination process.
It is used in the removal of nickel, chromium, copper, and arsenic from wastewater. Nanofiltration (NF) is a combination of UF and RO and incorporates the benefits of both techniques.
The most notable benefits of this method are its simplicity, dependability, and low energy consumption, in conjunction with a high rate of removal.
Flotation uses bubble attachment to isolate HMs from the liquid phase. Dissolved air flotation (DAF), ion flotation, and precipitation flotation, are the most commonly used water decontamination processes.
Electrochemical deposition is a method of depositing a thin and tightly adherent, desired coating of metal, oxide, or salt onto the surface of a conductor substrate, through simple electrolysis of a solution containing the desired metal ion or its chemical complex.
Heavy metals can be recovered from wastewater streams using electrochemical deposition.
It is another technique for removing heavy metals from wastewater that is successfully employed in the industry. A solid that can exchange cations or anions from the materials around it is an ion exchanger. Synthetic organic ion exchange resins are frequently utilized as ion exchange matrices.
Adsorption on fresh adsorbents
Adsorption is becoming a popular alternative treatment method for heavy metal-contaminated wastewater.
Adsorption is essentially a mass transfer process in which a substance is moved from the liquid phase, to the surface of a solid and is then chemically or physically bonded.
Rapid industrialization and urbanization have resulted in extensive and large amounts of heavy metal pollution, in soil and water. In particular, the problem of heavy metal pollution in water caused by industrial production, has become increasingly serious in recent years.
As a result, new technologies for heavy metal removal must be implemented.
How can we assist?
A wide variety of wastewater treatment options are offered by Netsol Water, including water treatment, wastewater treatment, sewage treatment, effluent treatment, along with advanced physical, chemical and biological methods of wastewater treatment.