Coagulation and flocculation are water clarifying aiding processes that help remove suspended particles, including oil, organics, colour & TOC, and hardness in effluent & influent water treatment. As a result, people can use water treatment plants from Netsol Water, to efficiently treat their influent raw water for use as process water, continuously adhere to wastewater discharge regulations, and reuse water affordably.
Let’s review flocculants and their working in this blog.
What are flocculants and how do flocculants work?
In the process of flocculation, smaller particles join to form larger flocs, which are then removed from the water. This procedure may be aided by chemical agents or occur naturally. It is a widely used technique for drinking water purification, storm-water treatment, and wastewater treatment.
One of the requirements for treated water leaving wastewater treatment facilities, is the elimination of suspended particles. Small solid particles contaminate natural water sources like rivers and the ocean, and alter the hue of the water.
Additionally, as phosphorus discharge into rivers promotes the growth of algae, the phosphorus concentration in wastewater must also be lowered. Large-scale die-offs of fish and other aquatic life have been related, to unchecked phosphorus discharges. When transported to wastewater treatment facilities, some industrial uses may produce considerable amounts of phosphorus in their effluent, which may require pre-treatment.
Flocculants are substances that encourage the aggregation of minute particles in a solution to create a floc, which then rises to the top (flotation) or sinks to the bottom (sinking). Additionally, this may be removed from the liquid more easily at that point.
There are many different charges, molecular weights, charge densities, and morphologies of both inorganic and organic flocculants.
Because, they may produce flocculation with a low dosage, organic polymeric flocculants are now mostly used in Pilot Water Treatment Plants. The focus is now shifting to more environmentally friendly biopolymers, due to their lack of biodegradability and the associated dispersion of potentially hazardous monomers, into water sources. Integrated solutions that transplant synthetic polymers over natural polymers, to create bespoke flocculants for water treatment offer the best of both worlds.
How do water treatment plants use flocculation?
The flocculation process is a chemical process. It involves adding chemicals to the wastewater in stages and allowing smaller solid particles, to collect into a larger mass known as a floc.
Water treatment by flocculation is carried out in various stages.
1: Solid granules suspended in wastewater
A coagulant, such as aluminium sulphate, is added to the water in pilot water treatment plants, during the initial flocculation process. Additionally, the positively charged coagulant molecules balance out the negatively charged solid grains, suspended in the water. These granules' neutralization enables them to flocculate collectively into a larger mass.
2: The effluent must be stirred using mixers
High-intensity mixing is necessary initially to ensure that the coagulant disperses throughout the water. The mixing energy is reduced during flocculation to stop the granule mass from re-separating.
3: Once floc starts to form, and a polymer chemical is added to the wastewater
Polymers connect the flocculant from micro to macro flocculant in plants, raising the mass of particles clumping together. Additionally, this molecule keeps the collected material from dissolving even when the water is only slightly disturbed.
4: The massive solid masses in the wastewater streams are removed, after flocculation is finished
Well, this is done either through settling, where the floc sinks to the bottom to be removed, or through the use of filters, where the floc is collected in the filter material. Care should be made to trap and handle the phosphorus-rich floc, while cleaning the filters.
Features and advantages of coagulation and flocculation
Netsol Water approach to finding a solution entails performing a comprehensive cost analysis, and in-depth system assessment. The findings are used to create a treatment plan that includes coagulants, flocculants, application guidance, and operational instructions.
The following benefits will result from this approach:
· Procedures for clarifying and flotation that are economical
· Applications for thickening and dewatering that are economical and improve sludge dryness
· Optimization of clearing activities to reduce ionic loading & to soil on subsequent treatment processes
· Reduces the amount of sludge in the DAF float and clarifier blowdown
· The lowest possible operating cost
· Generating less solid waste as we switch from inorganic to organic goods
· Boosts the effectiveness of downstream filters
· Enhanced unit performance and effluent quality
Flocculation remains an essential component of the water treatment process. We therefore expect that after reading this blog, you have a good understanding of this process and won't run into any problems in the future. Therefore, the next time you decide to build up your pilot water treatment plants, be sure to take into account the needs of expediting the flocculation process.
Have you given any thought to increasing your water filtration system's effectiveness?
Choose Netsol Water in this situation. We offer the most cutting-edge and effective technologies on the market. Our group assists in lowering the overall cost of establishing a pilot plant, for your water treatment requirements.