How to Water and Wastewater Management protects public health?
For excellent public health, effective water and wastewater treatment is required.
"The right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation is a human right that is important for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights," the United Nations said in 2010.
The number of new and emerging human pathogenic viruses has increased dramatically in recent decades. This has resulted in several global outbreaks and epidemics, including the coronavirus pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19), as well as a substantial loss of life.
A wide range of harmful viruses can be found in municipal wastewater. Water is a primary vector for pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, and helminthes. Most of these bacteria live in people and animals' gastrointestinal tracts and are released into the environment via faeces, where they can contaminate surface water and/or groundwater.
Over 80% of the world's wastewater is dumped into the environment untreated, with over 95% in some of the world's least developed countries; 2.4 billion people still lack access to adequate sanitation. Only 26% of urban sanitation and wastewater services and 34% of rural sanitation and wastewater services adequately limit human contact with excreta along the sanitation chain and can thus be considered safe.
Safe drinking water, sanitation, waste management, and sanitary conditions are critical for preventing and safeguarding human health throughout any infectious disease outbreaks, including the coronavirus pandemic of 2019(COVID-19).
In fact, guaranteeing effective wastewater treatment disposal and good drinking water treatment is just as critical as garbage collection, and vaccination programs for safeguarding community health.
Given that, in many parts of the globe, water resource protection measures, including control on the treatment and supply of drinking water, as well as the treatment and discharge of waste water, may be inadequate or non-existent. Water and waste management techniques that are evidence-based and routinely followed in communities, households, schools, marketplaces, and healthcare institutions will assist to avoid pathogen transmission from person to person.
Wastewater and sludge should be confined and treated on-site or transported off-site and treated in well-designed and managed wastewater and/or faecal sludge treatment plants, due to the possible infectious disease hazards from excreta.
Enveloped viruses respond well to standard treatment methods. Each stage of treatment, which combines physical, biological, and chemical processes (e.g., retention time, dilution, oxidation, sunshine, raised pH, and biological activity), reduces the danger of exposure and speeds pathogen decrease. If current treatment plants are not optimal to eradicate viruses, a final disinfection step may be considered. The primary goal of wastewater treatment is to remove as many suspended particles as possible before returning the leftover water, known as effluent, to the environment.
Similarly steps may be taken to increase water safety!
Protecting the source water; treating water at the point of distribution, collection, or consumption; and storing treated water securely at home in regularly cleaned and covered containers are just a few examples. Water may be treated in a variety of ways in order to make it safe to drink. Other treatments, such as UV irradiation, reverse osmosis, and ozonation, are also gaining popularity. Water safety plans may be used to successfully design, execute, and monitor such procedures.
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