How to Reuse of Water in Petroleum sector?
Although the water requirements of oil-exploration make water reuse a hot topic for the upstream petroleum industry (exploration and production), there are significant opportunities for reuse downstream, including refining.
Petroleum refineries are typically located along the coast near a river mouth, both to take advantage of available water resources and to reduce transportation costs. Water reuse is a natural fit for the industry because supplying fresh water for operations in these parched areas can be difficult.
The Use of Water in Petroleum Refining
The amount of water used by refineries is determined by the processes involved.
Cracking, light coking, and heavy coking are typical refinery configurations that process different grades of crude oil, with water consumption ranging from 0.34 to 0.44 barrels of water per barrel of crude oil.
At 0.60–0.71 gallons of water per gallon of gasoline, gasoline production consumes the most water, while jet fuel refining consumes the least 0.09 gallons.
Up to 10% of the energy in crude is used to refine it, with much of that energy lost as thermal energy loss during cooling. As a result, large amount of water is used in the production of petroleum fuels during processing and cooling.
Water cooling can be accomplished in three ways:
1: An open-circuit system circulates water through a heat exchanger before discharging it near its source.
2: Semi-open circuit systems rely on heat exchangers and cooling towers to dissipate heat via steam.
3: Closed circuit systems circulate a constant volume of water through cooling towers.
Source of water for petroleum production
Water for petroleum fuel production is typically obtained from groundwater, canals, rivers, lakes, and, in some cases, the ocean. Although refineries are typically located near an infinite supply of saltwater, and desalination is becoming much more efficient and cost-effective at all scales, water reuse is frequently an attractive alternative to or an ideal complement to desalination.
Petroleum refineries produce a variety of wastewater streams, including:
· Desalter water, which is produced as a by-product of washing raw crude before topping.
· Sour water, or water used in steam stripping and fractionation that comes into contact with crude oil.
· Process water from product washing, catalyst regeneration, and dehydrogenation reactions.
· Spent caustic, from the extraction of acidic compounds, which is difficult to reuse and treat directly.
· Bottoms of tanks (periodically removed sediment and water from raw crude tanks).
· Blow-down water is cooling tower water that has impurities that concentrate as the water evaporates.
· Sludge dewatering, ion exchange regeneration, and reverse osmosis are all byproducts of water treatment methods.
Stormwater falls in both process and non-process areas, and the runoff can be reused or managed in other ways. Tanker ballast water must also be managed to prevent the spread of disease and invasive species.
Food services, laundry services, and streets and roads with stormwater sewers and harvesting opportunities may be found in a refinery. Water is required for on-site machine shops, airports, and, of course, swimming pools. There are medical clinics, living quarters, and tap water for refinery employees. There is sewage wherever there are people, and where there are people, there are opportunities for wastewater reuse.
Petroleum refineries, like cities, have access to water, but they also have access to produced water, which is a by-product of the extraction of oil and gas. It occurs naturally and is occasionally injected to aid extraction.
How can Netsol Water help?
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