Mercury (Hg) is one of the rarest elements on the planet. It might take the form of an inorganic salt or an organic molecule (methyl mercury).Mercury is a naturally occurring element in Earth's crust in trace proportions. Dental preparations, thermometers, fluorescent lighting, and medications all contain mercury. Mercury has also been utilized in industrial processes and as a fungicide. From ancient dump sites, industry, and inappropriate disposal, mercury can leak into water systems.When mercury is introduced into water or soil, it is the only metal that can evaporate. Microbes can also convert inorganic mercury to organic mercury, which can be absorbed by aquatic organisms.The inorganic type is the one found in drinking water. Fish contain organic mercury, which is derived from industrial production waste.
When inhaled, inorganic mercury normally settles in the kidneys, whereas organic mercury targets the central nervous system.
• Inhalation of metallic mercury vapor, dermal application of medicinal products containing inorganic mercurous salts, and ingestion of methylmercury-contaminated seafood have all been linked to neurological and behavioral problems, including hand tremors, irritability, shyness, vision or hearing changes, and memory issues.
• Short-term mercury exposure can result in lung damage, nausea, diarrhea, blood pressure or heart rate rises, skin rashes, and eye discomfort.
• Children of mercury-exposed mothers have shown delays in motor and linguistic development, as well as serious brain damage.
• Mercury harms the liver, immunological system, and reproductive organs, among other things.
Distillation, reverse osmosis, and ion exchange can remove both inorganic and organic mercury in water.
• Activated carbon, specialty media adsorption, and filtration goods such solid block and adsorption filter work well.
• The EPA has allowed the use of coagulation/filtration, granulated activated carbon, lime softening, and reverse osmosis to remove mercury from drinking water.
• Sulfide precipitation is a typical method for removing inorganic mercury from wastewater, and starch xanthate is a substitute for activated carbon as an adsorption medium.
REMOVAL OF MERCURY
Coagulation/Filtration, Granular Activated Carbon, Lime Softening, and Reverse Osmosis are four methods for removing mercury from water.
1.Coagulation/filtration is a typical treatment that involves the use of AlSO4 to react with mercury and generate a solid that can be filtered out of the water. After that, the sludge must be dumped in a hazardous waste landfill. This method is advantageous because it is inexpensive and dependable.
2.Porous carbon medium is used in granular activated carbon. This is a charcoal-based media with a lot of weight. The dissolved pollutants are absorbed and stored on the solid surface when the water passes through. Because the efficiency of this procedure is dependent on the amount of mercury in the water, it has some limits.
3.Excess Ca(OH) is used in lime softening to raise the pH level, after which the heavy metal precipitates out as Hg (OH). Lower costs and proven reliability are two advantages of this technology.
4.Water is forced through a semipermeable membrane in reverse osmosis. Polyamide film is a common membrane material. This method generates high-quality water, but it is somewhat costly.
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