How is Biogas used for electricity production?
Biogas is well-known for producing combustible gas from anaerobic biomass digestion. Millions of biogas plants are already in operation across the world. While direct combustion in domestic stoves or gas lights is prevalent, generating energy from biogas is still uncommon in most developing nations. However, there are techniques to generate electricity from biogas.
Innovations in technology
The gas produced by anaerobic digestion is known as biogas. A biogas plant turns animal dung, green plants, agricultural waste, and other waste, into combustible gas.
Biogas, like natural gas, may be used in gas stoves, lighting, and as motor fuel. It is made up of 50-75 % methane, 25-45 % carbon dioxide, 2-8 % water vapour, and trace amounts of O2 N2, NH3 H2 H2S.The energy content of the gas is mostly determined by its methane component. As a result, a high methane concentration is ideal. Although some carbon dioxide and water vapour content are unavoidable, the sulphur level must be kept to a minimum, especially for use in engines.
In theory, biogas may be directly turned into energy using a fuel cell. However, this method needs highly pure gas, and costly fuel cells. As a result, this solution is still under investigation and is not presently a viable choice. The use of a generator sets to convert biogas to electricity, is far more feasible.Biogas has a high knock resistance, and may thus be utilized in combustion engines, with high compression rates.
Biogas is often utilized as a fuel for combustion engines, which converts it to mechanical energy and power an electric generator, to generate electricity. As most generators create alternating current power, they are also known as alternators or dynamos.
Temperatures favourable for methane production
The amount of time that the material is maintained in the digester depends on the temperature of the digester. At 50°C, the material (slurry/organic waste) can be stored for two weeks, whereas at 15°C, it can be stored for two months. The average is around one month. You can calculate the size of the digester, by measuring the amount of material maintained in the digester, every day and multiplying it by 30.
Gas of appropriate quality
The gas must meet the following specifications, before it may be used in gas or diesel engines:
- As methane is the most flammable component of the gas, it should be as high as feasible.
- The water vapour and CO2 concentration should be as low as feasible, owing to the fact that they contribute to the gas's poor calorific value.
- Sulphur content, particularly in the form of H2S, must be limited because condensation and combustion, converts it to corrosion-causing acids.
- Condensation in the gas storage or on the approach to the engine, can diminish the water vapour concentration.
Power generation from biogas has the potential to be a very efficient technique,for generating electricity from a sustainable energy source. However, this is only true if the generated heat can be utilized, in an economically and environmentally sound manner.
Netsol Water is a renowned producer of water and wastewater treatment plants. Based on client feedback and job quality, we are the most demanding organization in the industry for managing solid waste as well. We are well-known for providing different processes, like anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, digesters, in our biogas generating facilities, which help in producing biogas. Aside from that, our USP is 24x7 customer assistance.