Electrolytes and the Ion Exchange Resin method (IER) are frequently compared. The IER is based on the co-polymerization of styrene cross-linked with divinylbenzene.
To know the ion exchange process in detail for the sugar refineries, let’s go through the blog.
What are the Basic Ion Exchange Resin Process in Sugar Refineries?
In the process of regeneration, the IER system substitute’s one ion for another, holds it for a short period of time, and then releases it into a regenerate solution.
The matrix is the name given to IER's fundamental polymeric structure. The matrix has functional groups—acidic, basic, or salt—attached to it. A functional polymer, ion exchanger, or simply ion exchange resin is the name given to the matrix and the functional group.
Ion Exchange Resin = Functional Groups + Polymer Matrix
The matrix, to which active functional groups are connected, is the fundamental structure of a polymer. The majority are styrenic or acrylic polymers produced from discarded matrix, and are chemically activated with different functional groups.
An ion-exchange resins
These are activated by positive functional groups, such as quaternary ammonium.
These are activated by negative functional groups, such as sulphonates (SO3H) or carboxyl (-COOH). The resin structure has been altered in a variety of ways, including macro reticular, macroporous, and gel, depending on the uses and specifications.
Strong cationic-exchange resin is required
H-R + NaCl = NaCl-R + HCl
An effective anionic-exchange resin is also required
Cl-R + NaOH = NaCl + OH-R
Styrenic resins can remove colorants by forming ionic bonds with the cationic active groups in the resin, as well as by reacting with the resin matrix to remove hydrophobic colorants.
Types of Ion Exchange Resins
· Strong Acid Cation (SAC)
This resin contains a styrene-divinyl benzene matrix with a functional group of sulphonic acid. Divinyl benzene (DVB) is present in the typical SAC resin in an amount of 8%. For various uses, resins with divinyl benzene contents below, and beyond the norm are available.
The structure of the resin matrix could be gel-like or macroporous. Water softening, dealkalization, and demineralization processes utilise the SAC resin, which exchanges all cations in water.
· Weak Acid Cation (WAC)
This resin has a gel-like structure and is made out of a Polyacrylic acid-divinyl benzene matrix, with carboxylic acid functionality. The WAC resin is renowned for its great capacity for the divalent cations, and exchanges all cations connected to alkalinity in water.
High regenerant utilisation efficiency is one of the resin's distinguishing features. Therefore, the main purpose of the resin is to de-acidify water. It is employed as the first stage of a demineralization train as well.
· Strong Base Anion (SBA)
The Strong Base Anion (SBA) resin has a gel or macroporous structure and a styrene-divinylbenzene matrix. DVB is not used as a cross-linking agent in the isoporous SBA resin.
Instead, EDMA (ethylene dimethyl methacrylate), which creates homogeneous porosity, is the cross-linking substance used. Quaternary ammonium functionality is present in the SBA resin.
· Weak Base Anion (WBA)
The Weak Base Anion resin features a macroporous structure, a styrene-divinylbenzene matrix, and tertiary ammonium functionality. The WBA resin is renowned for its high ability to withstand free mineral acidity, and high regeneration effectiveness.
To achieve operational efficiency, the resin is used in a demineralization scheme upstream of a SAC resin, and before an SBA resin.
Size of Ion Exchange Resin Particles
Particle size distribution is a crucial physical feature of a resin that influences things like kinetics, pressure drop characteristics, and backwash expansion.
1: Lower pressure drop and a poorer rate of exchange are produced by coarse particles.
2: Higher pressure drop but a better rate of exchange is produced by fine particles. The sizes of resins produced range from 0.3 mm to 1.2 mm.
3: 'Fines' refers to particles that are less than 0.3 mm in size.
Basic ion exchange resin process in sugar refineries
It is one of the greatest technologies for de-colorization in the sugar refinery process.
Ion exchange reactions occur between colorants that are negatively charged, and hydrophobic interactions between non-polar colorants that result in adsorption, inside the resin bed of colorants.
Ion-exchange resin responds to a simple acid-base chemical reaction, when in contact with a sugar melt solution.
Strong base anion (SBA) exchange resins in the chloride form with a resin matrix of either styrenic or acrylic, are utilised in the sugar business, due to the fact that the majority of sugar colorants are anionic, which are negatively charged at high pH. Therefore, strong base anionic resins are effective at removing colour from sugar melt.
Quaternary ammonium functional groups are the source of the functionality, in strong base anion (SBA) exchange resins. It has two different kinds of quaternary ammonium groups, Type I and Type II.
Type 1vs Type 2 functional groups
Trimethylamine, which has three methyl groups in Type I sites, produces chloride ions (Cl-), while dimethylethanolamine, which has an ethanol group in place of one of the methyl groups in Type I sites, produces hydroxide ions (OH–). Type I resins are more stable than Type II resins, and are better at removing weakly ionised acids.
Acrylic resins interact less hydrophobically with nonpolar colorant components, and are more resistant to high colour feed levels than styrenic resins. Styrenic resins, on the other hand, have a superior capacity with lower colour feed levels, and a higher decolourization rate.
There are many sites where Netsol Water provide facilities for water treatment, including the treatment of water in sugar refineries through ion-exchange process. High quality standards are associated with the quality attributes and as a result, we provide you with further engineering and consultancy, while personally adjusting your system to your workflow.
Why should you select Netsol Water as the manufacturer of your water treatment systems?
We are the leading producer and supplier of commercial RO Plants, industrial RO systems, water softeners, etc., in India. Our system is exceptionally reliable and cost-effective for use in an industrial environment. We work with each of our clients to give high-quality filtration systems at affordable pricing, since we are aware that you need the best systems available, at fair and competitive prices.