Any procedure that can reduce pollutants in wastewater below achievable, with traditional secondary or biological treatment is defined as advanced wastewater treatment technologies.
What is the importance of advanced wastewater treatment technology?
These innovative treatment techniques have sparked global attention as individuals, communities, and companies seek ways to keep vital resources available and usable.
Advanced wastewater treatment is required as society attempts to alleviate the effects of rising population, urbanization, industrialization, and potable water depletion.
How to work of an advanced wastewater treatment plant?
To remove bigger solid particles from wastewater, pretreatment generally employs physical techniques, such as filtering and settling.
Chemical pretreatment methods may also be used in industrial wastewater treatment, instead of physical procedures. These procedures frequently modify the pH of the water or the structures of the contaminants that it contains.As a result, the solid waste particles bind together and create heavier waste clusters, which more easily precipitate out.
Primary treatment is the next wastewater treatment plant process. Its primary objective is to remove particles from wastewater using gravity, and ongoing physical processes.
Pretreated water gathers in primary clarifiers during basic wastewater treatment. The wastewater is allowed to settle for a while, so that any remaining contaminants can precipitate out. Mechanical scraping equipment may capture some of the solid stuff and transport it to sludge treatment equipment, to be used in the activated sludge process.
3. Secondary Treatment
Secondary wastewater treatment employs bacterial rather than physical methods. It employs helpful microorganisms to break down, more of the wastewater's solid contaminants.
There are several types of secondary treatment.
a) Anoxic Treatment
Nitrogen in wastewater is in the form of nitrate (NO3). A trickling filter or suspended growth system can be used by the treatment plant to convert nitrogen to nitrate. The wastewater is then exposed to specific bacteria.
Plants often utilize tightly sealed reactors for their anoxic treatments to prevent molecular oxygen, from interfering with the process. The nitrogen in the nitrate is consumed by the microbes, leaving just the oxygen molecules.
b) Anaerobic Treatment
Anaerobic treatment is also performed in the absence of oxygen. Unlike anoxic treatment, which occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen but may contain bound oxygen in other compounds, anaerobic treatment happens in the absence of all forms of oxygen.
Anaerobic treatment frequently employs covered digesting lagoons, in which anaerobic bacteria can degrade organic waste.
c) Aerobic Treatment
Because, the microorganisms involved require oxygen for their metabolic functions, aerobic treatment takes place in the presence of oxygen.
The wastewater treatment plant must include equipment that can deliver oxygen, and incorporate it into the wastewater in a process known as aeration, for aerobic treatment to take place.
4. Tertiary Treatment
The tertiary treatment adds additional filtration and disinfection. Tertiary treatment, in contrast to primary and secondary treatment, is usually optional in most wastewater treatment plants.
Plants frequently employ it when they must meet especially severe effluent regulations.
Tertiary treatment may rely on a number different procedures, the first of which is filtration, followed disinfection:
A. Filtration: To eliminate leftover pollutants from wastewater, tertiary treatment frequently employs filters such as sand filters or carbon adsorption filters.
B. Chlorination: To sterilize the water, many wastewater treatment plants add chlorine. Because, using chlorine is inexpensive, many municipal plants use it.
C. UV: Tertiary treatment may also use ultraviolet (UV) light to eliminate or sterilize, any remaining microbes in the wastewater, rendering them harmless.
D. Ozone treatment: Some wastewater treatment plants disinfect using ozone treatment.Ozone treatment is more effective than chlorine treatment, but it is more expensive, necessitates specific corrosion-resistant equipment, and emits harmful gases, therefore plants must carefully consider the costs and benefits of this treatment.
E. Ion Exchange: Tertiary treatment may also include the use of ion exchange, which exchanges harmless ions for unwelcomed ones, similar to how a home water softener replaces unpleasant calcium and magnesium ions, with inoffensive sodium ions.
Best manufacturers of advancedwastewater treatment plants
Netsol Water has assisted in the resolution of hundreds of water and wastewater-related problems, in residential, commercial and industrial sectors by deploying a wide range of specialized, water treatment and wastewater treatment technologies.