What are the basic parameters for monitoring wastewater?
When it comes to industrial facilities, water must be treated at times to guarantee that the quality is adequate for a variety of critical activities. Physical parameters, chemical parameters, and biological parameters are three water quality parameters that assist to measure the quality of water.
Colour, taste, odour, temperature, turbidity, solids, and electrical conductivity are examples of physical parameters.
Chemical parameters, on the other hand, might include pH, acidity, alkalinity, chlorine, hardness, dissolved oxygen, and biological oxygen demand.
The biological parameters, which include bacteria, algae, and viruses, are the third category of parameters.
Because of the many needs that applications might have, water quality criteria are important. Dissolved oxygen, for example, is one of the most significant characteristics to consider when assessing the water quality of a river. The level of dissolved oxygen in the water determines how dirty the sample is. Dissolved oxygen levels that are low indicate that the water is extremely contaminated and that organic pollutants are consuming the dissolved oxygen.
Physical Parameters of Wastewater
Water temperature influences smell, chemical reactions, solubility, palatability, and viscosity, among other elements of water quality. As a result, biological oxygen requirement, sedimentation, and chlorination are all affected by water temperature. Water temperatures should be between 50 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit.
-Taste and Smell
The taste of water can alter and smell might emerge as a result of foreign materials being introduced into the water.
The colour of the water can be changed by substances that decompose from organic matter. Inorganic materials such as rocks, dirt, and stones may also influence the colour of water. Even while these changes to water’s hue may cause aesthetic concerns, they have no effect on how the water tastes.
Colour may be measured successfully by comparing a water sample to colour glass disks or standard colour solutions.
Chemical wastewater parameters
When determining the quality of water, pH is one of the first factors to consider. The pH of water is determined with a simple pH sensor or test kit, which will tell you whether the water is acidic or basic. Acidic water contains more hydrogen or H+ ions. Basic water, on the other hand, has more hydroxyl ions.
The pH level can range from 0 and 14. When you get a value of 7.0, it suggests the water is neutral. Any values less than 7.0 are acidic, whereas any readings more than 7.0 are alkaline.The pH of pure water is neutral. Rainfall, on the other hand, is somewhat more acidic, with a pH of 5.6 on average. Water with a pH of 6.5-8.5 is considered safe to consume.
While chlorine does not exist naturally in water, it is often used to disinfect wastewater. Despite the fact that base chlorine is a deadly gas, the aqueous solution is totally safe for humans. If a trace quantity of chlorine is discovered in water, it means the water is clean and devoid of pollutants. A spectrophotometer or colour comparator test kit can be used to evaluate chlorine residual.
There are many physical as well as chemical wastewater/water quality parameters which are not described in detail here.
Biological wastewater Parameters
Bacteria are single-celled plants that can consume food and multiply quickly provided the pH, food availability, and temperature of the water are optimal. Because bacteria multiply so quickly, counting the amount of bacteria in a water sample is nearly impossible. In most circumstances, bacteria multiply slowly in cooler water. Many dangerous waterborne infections, such as cholera and typhoid can be caused by excessive levels of bacteria in water or wastewater.
Algae are microscopic plants made up of photosynthetic pigments. These plants can sustain themselves by successfully turning inorganic stuff into organic matter using solar energy. During this process, the algae eat carbon dioxide and emit oxygen. These are also necessary in wastewater treatment techniques that employ stabilization ponds.