Humans have recognised the value of water as a resource because it covers 70% of the earth's surface. As a result, aquaculture, particularly in the production of food, is one of the most intensively exploited areas in terms of the use of water as a resource, as opposed to using terrestrial land. Technology has made it possible to grow food in coastal marine waters and the open ocean as the demand for seafood has grown.
Aquaculture is a way for producing food and other commercial items, as well as restoring habitat and replenishing wild stocks and rebuilding threatened and endangered animal populations.Aquaculture is the practise of raising, reproducing, and harvesting aquatic animals and plants in controlled aquatic settings such as seas, lakes, rivers, ponds, and streams. It is used for a variety of purposes, including food production, the restoration of threatened and endangered species populations, the enhancement of wild stock populations, the construction of aquariums, and the cultivation of fish and habitat restoration.
Aquaculture is the carefully controlled cultivation of aquatic creatures for human consumption. It's comparable to agriculture, however instead of plants or cattle, fish are used. Fish farming is another name for aquaculture. Your local grocery store's seafood is almost certainly labelled as farmed fish. Aquaculture can and does take place all around the world, including in coastal ocean waters, freshwater ponds and rivers, and even tanks on land.
What is the mechanism behind it?
The farm-to-table procedure in aquaculture might vary depending on the species. The production chain is divided into four stages, beginning with hatcheries and ending at the seafood counter in your local supermarket.
The Global Seafood Alliance administers the Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) third-party certification programme because each of these stages can have a different impact on the environment and the quality and safety of the seafood they produce. The hatchery is the initial step in the aquaculture production process. This is where fish are bred, eggs are laid, and fish are reared through their early life stages. The animals are transferred to the farm when they are mature enough, where they are developed to harvest size using feed generated by feed mills (another stage of aquaculture). The fish are then transferred to a processing facility, where they are packed and distributed to supermarkets and other food shops.
How aquaculture is classified?
Aquaculture can be classified in several types on the basis of
I. Depending on the Hydro-biological Features
II. Depending on Motive of Farming
III. Depending on the Special Operational Techniques
Benefits of Aquaculture:
1. Economic benefits
- Acts as an Alternative Food
- Acts as an Alternative fuel source
- Provides jobs in markets
- Reduces sea food deficit
2. Environmental benefit
- Acts as a barrier against Pollution with Mollusc and Seaweed
- Fishing Pressure on Wild Stocks is Reduced
- Environmentally friendly
- Reduces the dependency on other sources of water supply
- Reduces Environmental Disturbance
- Conservation of the Biodiversity
Above all of the benefits, Aquaculture contributes to a good health as it provides one of the healthiest choice of all the food in abundance. The demand for seafood has increased globally as people have realized that seafood is healthier and help fight many diseases like cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s and many other major illnesses. As a result, seafood has become part of regular diet.