What are the types and function of Sewer appurtenances?
Sewer appurtenances are those structures and devices of the sewerage system thatare constructed at suitable intervals along the sewer line and are necessary for the efficient operation of the system.
This article gives a brief about various sewer appurtenances used in the sewage system. These appurtenances are required for proper and efficient functioning of any sewerage system.
Some of the important sewer appurtenances are:
Manholes, Drop Manholes, Lamp-Holes, Street inlets, Catch Basins or Catch Pits, Inverted Siphons, Clean-Outs, Flushing Devices, grease & Oil Traps and Storm Water Regulators.
1: Man-holes: Man holes are the openings of R.C.C or masonry chambers which are circular or rectangular in shape constructed on the alignment of a sewer line to enable a person to enter the sewer for the purpose of inspection, cleaning and flushing of sewer. These also serve as ventilators for sewers. These also facilitate the laying of sewer lines in convenient length.
Man-holes are provided at every bent, junctions of two or more sewers, whenever diameter of sewer changes, whenever there is change in direction or gradient of sewer line.
2: Drop Manholes:A drop manhole is a type of manhole which is constructed on a sewer line where there is a difference in level between a branch sewer and a main sewer.
3: Lamp-holes: Lamp holes are the openings constructed on the straight sewer lines between two man-holes which are far apart and serves the purpose of lowering a lamp inside it to help find out obstructions if any inside the sewers. These are also used for flushing the sewers.
4: Street inlets: The passages or openings through which storm water is admitted and conveyed to the storm sewer or combined sewer are called street inlets. The inlets are located by the sides of road pavement with maximum spacing of 30 m.
5: Catch Basins: Catch basins are small settling chambers provided to stop the entry of heavy debris into the sewer. These are constructed below the street inlets. They interrupt the velocity of storm water entering through the inlets and allow grit, sand, debris and so on to settle at the bottom of the basin, instead of allowing them to enter into the sewers.
6: Inverted siphons: These are also called as depressed sewers. These are those portions of sewers, which flow full under pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure due to flow line being below the hydraulic grade line. They are constructed where a sewer crosses a stream or deep cut or road or railway line. To clean the siphon pipe during maintenance, sluice valve is opened, thus increasing the head causing flow.
7: Clean outs:Clean-outs are the devices meant for cleaning the sewers. These are provided at the upper ends of lateral sewers in place of manholes. A clean-out typically consists of acapped inclined pipe, one end of which is connected to the underground sewer and the other end brought up to ground. At the top end of the clean-out pipe at the ground level, cover is provided.
8: Flushing devices:Flushing devices help to prevent clogging of sewers and permit the adoption of flatter gradients than those required to maintain self-cleansing velocity.
9: Grease and oil traps:Grease and oil traps are the plumbing devices provided on the sewer line to intercept grease and oil from sewage before it enters the sewer line. These are placed near the sources contributing oil and grease to sewage, such as automobile repair workshops, garages, kitchens of hotels, grease and oil producing industries, etc.
10: Storm water regulators:Storm water overflow devices or storm water regulators are the devices which are provided in a combined system of sewerage to permit the diversion of excess sewage through relief sewer to a watercourse and thus prevent overloading of sewers, pumping stations, treatment plants or of disposal arrangements.
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