Water pollution, the most common type of pollution after contaminated air, affects our rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater, and aquifers, not to mention the seas and oceans that cover the majority of our planet.
Pollutants pollute water bodies such as oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, groundwater, and aquifers. Contaminants can enter the water through direct or indirect application.
What are the different types of water pollution?
Here’s a quick look at different types of water pollution:
· Chemical pollution
Chemicals cause the most common type of water pollution because they can infiltrate both, underground and surface water sources. It's unsurprising that pesticides and fungicides used in farming contribute significantly to chemical contamination, but metals and solvents from industrial sites are also significant contributors.
· Groundwater pollution
As previously stated, agriculture is a major source of water pollution, particularly for groundwater.
Fertilizers and pesticides used on crops can leach into the ground and contaminate underground rivers and waterbeds, jeopardizing the quality of wells, boreholes, and other locations where groundwater is extracted for human consumption.
· Microbiological pollution
Microbiological pollution, unlike the majority of the others on this list, is a naturally occurring form of water contamination.
Bacteria, protozoa, and viruses can infiltrate water supplies and cause diseases like cholera. Humans are most vulnerable to this type of pollution in areas, where adequate water treatment systems do not yet exist.
· Nutrient pollution
While, nutrients are necessary for underwater flora and fauna to thrive, an abundance of nutrients can disrupt the delicate balance of water-based ecosystems.
Fertilizers contain a high concentration of nutrients, which can cause algal blooming in rivers, lakes, and coastal areas, blocking out sunlight and inhibiting the growth of other organisms.
Another effect of algal blooms is the depletion of oxygen supplies. This means that species that rely on oxygen to survive are extinct, while anaerobic ones thrive. Some anaerobic microorganisms can produce ammonia, sulphides, and other harmful toxins, making the water even more dangerous to animals and humans, too.
· Surface water pollution
Surface water pollution can occur naturally, accidentally, or intentionally, and refers to all water sources above ground, such as rivers, lakes, seas, and oceans.
Monitoring, for example, is critical in natural flood management, which can lead to poor water quality, while accidental oil spills and negligent industries that dump waste into bodies of water, are also major contributors.
· Suspended matter
Some contaminants are too large to mix with water molecules and do not dissolve in water. Cans, straws, and other large objects are among them. When suspended, they form a layer on the water's surface, preventing oxygen penetration and contributing to oxygen depletion pollution.
Some of the particulate matter may settle at the bottom of the lake, ocean, or river, affecting the life on the bottom. In some cases, the material may contain hazardous toxins.
Effects of water pollution on human beings
Life is a cyclical phenomenon, and humanity's irresponsible behaviour frequently comes back to haunt it. The addition of contaminants to bodies of water has had a variety of effects on the human family.
According to a 2017 WHO report, 2.1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water. In 2019, it was reported that 785 million people lacked access to safe drinking water.
Diseases are one of the most serious consequences. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 120,000 people die each year as a result of cholera.
Water is a necessary natural resource for all living things. Any irresponsible behaviour on the part of humanity has an impact on all other beneficiaries.
As a result, there is a need to protect water bodies from intentional pollution.
What do we offer?
A wide variety of treatment plants are offered by Netsol Water, including water treatment plants, wastewater treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, effluent treatment plants, along with advanced physical, chemical and biological treatment methods.