What is Onsite sanitation, Pit Privy and Aqua privy?
There may be insufficient population and infrastructure in rural areas and on the outskirts of cities to support the sewer system and central treatment plant. As a result, on-site sanitation is required to maintain sanitary living conditions.
Satisfactory wastewater management techniques should ensure that: water bodies used for water supplies are not contaminated; flies and vermin do not have access to excreta; surface water bodies are not polluted by runoff; and nuisance conditions such as odour are minimized for environmentally safe onsite sanitation.
Septic tanks and surface percolation are acceptable sites sanitation techniques, depending on the conditions; prolonged aeration, alone or in conjunction with a septic tank; and pit privies are still utilized in some areas without running water.
On-site sanitation is commonly referred to as a "home latrine," but it can also refer to facilities used by numerous households living on the same property. On-site sanitation refers to facilities that are self-contained inside the site, as opposed to sewerage, which involves removing sewage from the site.
Some industry specialists believe that on-site sanitation is best suited for rural regions and is inappropriate in metropolitan settings. In actuality, given the continuing development of urban populations and the significant prevalence of low-income persons in slums and periurban regions, delivering sewers to all urban residents is impossible. On-site/plot systems that are well-maintained and developed are a viable alternative to sewage networks.
Rural areas, particularly in developing and disadvantaged nations, still have a considerable number of pit privies.
A typical privy is a hole of about 1.0 m by 1.25 m deep, lined on both sides with rough boards, and capped with a reinforced concrete slab. The seat is supported by a concrete riser, and scents are carried through the roof via a ventilation pipe. The slab sits on the concrete curb, which is fastened to the house. To prevent surface runoff from entering the pit, earth is banked around the curb.
For a household of ordinary size, such a privy will last roughly ten years. Cleaning is impractical, therefore once the old privy is full, a new one should be excavated. The house, slab, and curb may all be relocated to the new site. Pit privies with a lot of traffic are usually lined with concrete and have an access door in the back. This allows the contents to be collected and taken to a municipal treatment facility or another appropriate disposal location.
In aqua privy, urine and faeces are dumped into a watertight tank that holds and decomposes the waste in the absence of oxygen (anaerobically), similar to a septic tank (Figure below). It differs from a septic tank in terms of how the contents are introduced, and it differs from a pit latrine in that the sludge is simpler to remove. The aqua privy might be partially above and partially below ground level.
The tank's contents are not in touch with the earth. The aqua privy, unlike the septic tank, does not require much water; nonetheless, an amount equal to that of the additional cleansing water must be drained from it each day, necessitating the installation of a drainage system. This waste should not be discharged onto open fields or gardens. When water is scarce, aqua privies are a good option, albeit they don't always perform as well as they should.