As per the Central Pollution Control Board - CPCB, fewer than half of India's urban sewage systems are efficient.
The main source of water pollution in India is a lack of sanitation infrastructure, as well as a lack of faecal sludge and septage control. It has wreaked havoc through illnesses such as diarrhoea, agricultural pollution, and environmental destruction.
While sewage systems with underground pipelines, pumping stations, and treatment facilities are established in major cities, they have yet to reach India's more than 7000 small towns. All of these settlements, which lack a functioning sewage network, rely on septic tanks to handle faeces. As a result, faecal sludge containing human excreta, solid waste, and water remains in the septic tank or pit latrines, and inadequate maintenance causes malfunction.
Excess difficulties, as well as dangerous removal and poor disposal, have plagued areas with unsanitary open spaces!
It frequently results in groundwater contamination, generating a public health concern and having an impact on the ecosystem.
Thus, the overall goal of effective faecal sludge and septage management is to safeguard public health and the environment from faecal material disruption and impacts. More precisely, the procedure assures solid and liquid materials separation, correct treatment, and safe disposal.
How to manage Faecal sludge?
Methods for managing faecal sludge
In cities across India, a variety of approaches are used to control faecal sludge and septage.
1: Scavenging by Hand
Even after the practice was outlawed, manual scavenging persisted. Manual scavengers enter the tank or pit to expel and dump the solidified sludge. This can endanger the individual's health in a variety of ways. It can also pose a public health risk when sludge is discharged near dwellings, highways, and surface drains.
Waste emptying should only be done mechanically, according to the Manual Scavenging Act. Despite such rules, injuries and deaths from manual scavenging occur often in Indian towns.
2: Suctioning is used to treat sludge
Another way is to remove sludge with suction equipment or pumps, transport it, and dispose of it.
In India, desludging is accomplished by suction-based vacuum trucks of varied capacity. Nonetheless, given the expanding population and amount of garbage created in cities, it faces a number of issues.
It is only utilized when a septic tank fails or when soak-pits are full or overflowing.
Mechanical emptying using vacuum trucks is problematic in places where streets are small and inaccessible due to the inability of big vehicles to arrive there.
In most cases, best practices are not followed during the shipping and disposal processes.
Because of the great distance between the septic tank location and the specified disposal site, indiscriminate sludge discharge occurs. The situation is exacerbated further by traffic. Children are more likely to come into touch with unsafely dumped rubbish on streets and grounds.It is a pricey procedure that most Indians cannot afford.
3: On-site Sludge Treatment
In-situ treatment is also used, in which sludge is treated on-site using various processes. The onsite treatment allows for the treatment of sludge on-site, where it is created. The most common ways include septic tank systems, dispersion trenches, and soak pit systems. There are no transportation costs. Furthermore, it is a simple and straightforward method of dealing with faecal sludge and managing septage.
However, there are difficulties in treating faecal sludge on-site. Because of the growing population, the amount of waste created exceeds the capacity of septic tanks and other similar systems. As a result, creative solutions are required to address this difficulty.
There are septic additives and biological treatment options that can improve the effectiveness of the sludge treatment process at the point of origin. The enhanced formulation, which consists of a microbial community, may be conveniently applied to the location's septic tank or pit latrines. The organic sludge waste is degraded by bacteria.
Netsol Water is one of the top firms offering a comprehensive variety of septic tank solutions. The process reduces sludge accumulation and avoids clogs. The septic tank cleanser aids in the avoidance of repeated pump-outs. Furthermore, it has the potential to eliminate manual scavenging.