What is Aquaculture?
Irrigation and aquaculture are both water intensive processes. But the processes require large amount of water and refuse vast amount of water. Aquaculture is fishery industry. Water shortage is caused by a mixture of long term -short term , geographical-political and natural and manmade components. Sullied Gray and dark water from urban and mechanical sewage, pesticides and other sources influence all water frameworks. About 50-80% of water remains untreated in streams, river, and groundwater, stopping improvement capacity and affecting nourishment security of the country.
Water is a finite asset, that it is replenished every year but has a limited quantity. Our water demand has outgrown its supply, therefore most of the areas are or will suffer in near future with water scarcity, so water reclamation and reuse is a viable and sustainable option for future.
The leading alternative in India is contamination control. India has a few examples for reusing wastewater for irrigation and aquaculture. East Kolkata wetland is perfect example of irrigation and aqua culture by reusing wastewater. It is perfect for urban sewage lake system and common organic medicines with plant-based waste administration for sewage treatment and a framework for reusing and reclaiming decontaminated sewage. Roughly 13000 fishes are provided from 300 such lakes and 150 tonne of new vegetables per day are provided from little green plots watered with decontaminated wastewater. Almost 35000 tonne of metropolitan waste and 680 million litres of crude sewage water enters the wetland framework every day.
In any case 30% of wastewater is reused for aquaculture or water system, 70% of it falls into Bay of Bengal, contaminating the estuary and meeting ocean body and marine ecology. This issue can be relieved by taking the fundamental step to reuse 100% of wastewater. The east Kolkata framework may be considered as a case of low-cost urban waste administration and fish crop reusing sewage. This is the perfect model of innovation in wastewater which is necessary in developing nations.
Sewage wastewater is characterised as a turbid fluid coming from family waste, civil waste and mechanical waste containing minerals and organic matter in suspended and colloidal form and scattered also. Sewage also contains pseudo colloidal solid particles . Sludge may be a big portion of waste and varies from sewage to sewage. Some sewage does not contain manure material.
Use of wastewater in Aquaculture and Irrigation
To use wastewater for irrigation, pre-treatment of wastewater is necessary. So,wastewater is sent to a sedimentation, then dilution chamber, and then stored in stabilisation tank. Untreated wastewater is not suitable for irrigation as it possesseshealth hazards both for plant and humans who are going to consume that due to the presence of heavy metals, pathogens, and organic compounds.
This process can also be called sewage encouraged fisheries. The huge fishery industry of India is using reclaimed wastewater. The wastewater is stabilised in the stabilisation tanks and then sent to the aquaculture lake, where fishes consume the nutrient of the wastewater, as it is high in nutrient component.
It is highly recommended to re-use this wastewater for such purposes as it saves water, which is already scarce and unclean in our country.