Solid waste is generated by human activities that are discarded as undesired and worthless. It is generally generated by industrial, residential, and commercial activities, such as ploughing into fields in a given area, and it can be treated in a variety of ways.
However, waste can be classified according to its composition, such as paper, plastic, glass, metal, and organic waste. To achieve best environmental practices, solid waste dumping and disposal must be managed methodically.
Solid waste disposal and management is an important part of the environmental hygiene, which must be included in environmental planning.
What is solid waste management or SWM?
The process of collecting and handling solid wastes is commonly referred to as solid waste management. It offers recycling options for products that do not belong in waste. Thus, it can be referred to as the procedure of transforming waste into a valuable resource.
How is Solid Waste dumped and disposed?
Here are some solid waste disposal and management methods:
a) Open Burning of Solid Waste
b) The procedure of sea dumping
c) Sanitary landfills for solid waste
d) Incineration technique
e) The composting procedure
f) Disposal through ploughing onto fields
g) Disposal via hog feeding
h) Salvaging method
i) Fermentation and biochemical digestion
1. Open Burning of Solid Waste
In the current situations, open burning of solid waste is not the best option, as it causes land and air pollution.
2. The Process of Sea Dumping
This practice of marine dumping is only permitted in coastal cities. This is an extremely expensive and environmentally damaging technique.
3. Sanitary landfills for solid waste
The process of solid waste sanitary landfills is easy, clean, and efficient. Layers are squeezed with mechanical equipment’s, and coated with dirt, levelled, and compacted in this method. A 3 to 5 m deep trench is excavated, and microorganisms operate on and breakdown organic waste.The refuse depth is normally limited to 2m in this operation.
4. Incineration method
The incineration method is appropriate for combustible waste. This technique has high operating and building costs. This strategy would be appropriate in densely populated cities, when land filling sites are in short supply.
It can be used to reduce the amount of solid waste that must be disposed of in landfills.
5. The composting procedure
Composting is a popular practice in developing nations that is akin to sanitary landfilling. This process separates and composts decomposable organic waste.
Yields are dependable end products, which also serve as good soil conditioners. They can be used as a starting point for fertilizers.
In this process, two methods are used:
· Open window composting
· Composting through Mechanical Means
6. Disposal through ploughing onto fields
Ploughing into fields for dumping is not a common practice, as these disposals are harmful to the environment.
7. Hog feeding disposal
In India, hog feeding is not a common method of disposal. Waste dumping into sewers increases by 20-30%, including BOD and TSS. Refuse is finely processed in grinders, before being fed into sewers.
8. Procedure for Salvaging
Metal, paper, glass, rags, certain types of plastic, and other materials can be rescued, recycled, and reused.
9. Fermentation and biological digestion
Biodegradable waste is composted, and recycling is encouraged whenever practical.
Improper disposal of municipal solid waste can lead to unhygienic conditions, which can then pollute the environment. Rodents and insects can transmit diseases.
The tasks of solid waste disposal management are technically complicated. They can also cause a slew of economic, administrative, and social issues that must be addressed.
How can we help?
Netsol Water is one of the most reputable providers of waste management solutions. Netsol's waste management expertise will manage your system, and respond to your needs as if they were our own, allowing you to focus on what you do best every day.