Every day, massive amounts of wastewater are produced from a variety of sources, including residences, factories, and agricultural operations. It contains poisonous materials, pollutants, and other contaminants that can affect the ecosystem, induce water-borne diseases in humans, and harm the surrounding flora and animals.
As a result, wastewater treatment is critical, and a healthy community of microorganisms plays an important part in this process.
What is the Role of microbes in Waste Water Treatment?
A Waste Water Treatment principal purpose is to cleanse wastewater to a certain quality. Heavy solid particles are removed from wastewater using physical techniques. Following that, biological processes aid in the purification of wastewater by eliminating soluble and insoluble organic debris. This method employs bacteria to turn wastewater into effluent, which may then be released into the environment without causing harm.
Bacteria, protozoa, and other microbes are responsible for breaking down the organic stuff in wastewater and cleansing it. Bacteria feed on nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as substances such as lipids, proteins, and sugar.In a wastewater treatment plant, three species of bacteria are commonly utilised, depending on the availability of oxygen.
1: Aerobic Bacteria-Aerobic bacteria require a constant supply of oxygen to operate on waste. As a result, oxygen is given to the treatment tank via aeration devices. The aeration procedure allows bacteria to flourish in this environment while also efficiently breaking down garbage. It transforms contaminants into energy, which it then utilises to grow and reproduce.
2: Anaerobic bacteria-In the absence of oxygen, anaerobic bacteria are known to break down organic waste. It gets its oxygen from the food it eats, so it doesn't need to buy it separately. Anaerobic bacteria are capable of lowering sludge volumes while also producing by-products such as carbon dioxide and water. The methane gas produced during the process can also be used as an energy source.Furthermore, anaerobic bacteria use the denitrification process to convert nitrate and nitrite into nitrogen gas.
3: Facultative Bacteria-The function of facultative bacteria can be performed in the presence or absence of oxygen. Although it favours an aerobic environment, it may also survive in a non-aerobic environment.As a result, a healthy bacterial community is required for effective wastewater treatment.
However, there are a number of factors that influence bacterial growth and performance in treatment plants.
Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, sludge age, and oxygen usage are all factors to consider. Operators can control some of these, but not all of them.Furthermore, elements such as the weather and the amount of trash generated can have an impact on bacteria's performance. This, in turn, can cause wastewater treatment systems to fail.