Effluent Treatment Plant for Nursing Homes
Large amounts of sewage get generated in nursing homes and care facilities as a result of staff and patient care. As a result of their location away from urban centers, many nursing and care facilities aren't connected to the main public sewer system. They are required to treat their wastewater on-site utilizing septic tanks, off-mains drainage systems, and sewage treatment facilities.
Compared to other applications, care homes often produce more wastewater per person. The EPA wastewater treatment guides suggest allowing for 350l/person when designing care home wastewater treatment systems. To put this into perspective, a person only creates 150l of wastewater every day in a household setting.
Classification of Nursing Homes
These are primarily responsible for handling of medical wastes generated within the medical centers, as well as measures carried out by them in the community.
Health care facilities are also responsible for the separation, collection, internal transportation, pre-treatment, and storage of waste before it is picked up by the operator of the common bio-medical waste treatment facility. As a result, knowledge of and experience with the technical requirements of waste management are required for proper waste management in healthcare facilities.
The different kinds of waste produced by a healthcare center are as follows:
1: Biological Medical Waste - Bio-medical waste is any waste produced during the diagnosis, treatment, or vaccination of humans or animals, or during related research activities, as well as during the production or testing of biologicals or in health camps.
2: General Waste- General Waste includes all waste that hasn't been in contact with potentially harmful or contagious chemicals, biological fluids, or sharps.
3: Waste from Other Sources - Radioactive waste, spent batteries, and used electronics are a few examples of other wastes that fall beyond the scope of biological wastes but nevertheless need to be disposed of when they are produced.
Working function of ETP for Nursing Homes:
1. Preliminary Stage: The most crucial part of most ETPs' treatment processes, this phase is also known as pretreatment. To remove large-sized suspended materials from entering raw sewage and wastewater, such as paper, plastic, metal, garbage, and rags, it uses bar screens of various shapes and sizes. These materials could seriously harm plant machinery if they are not removed. Sedimentation is the process by which sewage enters a grit chamber, which slows down the flow of water and eliminates sand, grit, and sandstones.
2. Primary Stage: To improve the quality of the wastewater, which was not accomplished in the previous step, physical and chemical procedures are used. Skimming, a process that removes 60–65% of the total suspended solids from liquid wastewater, occurs when wastewater enters a sedimentation tank or primary clarifier. Heavier solid particles settle to the bottom of the tank while lighter particles float to the top and are skimmed off using a technique called skimming. To remove grit, this stage could use a grit chamber. The primary sludge that has settled is what will be processed further in the sludge digester. Moving on to the following stage, the water is now partially cleared.
3. Secondary Stage: When biological treatment procedures are used at this stage, around 80–90% of organic materials can be eliminated. The "activated sludge process" is used by the majority of hospital ETP systems. In this method, liquid wastewater is introduced into an aeration tank where it mixes with air to promote the growth of bacteria and, ultimately, the breakdown of organic matter. The heavier material that falls to the bottom and is known as "active sludge" or secondary effluent is removed from the aerated water when it reaches the secondary clarifier. To speed up the breakdown of organic matter, some of the sludge that still includes bacteria will be pumped back into the aeration tank. In the subsequent stage, known as disinfection, the residual bacteria are dealt individually.
4. Tertiary stage: This is the last stage, also referred to as the disinfection stage. Any remaining suspended solids and other contaminants that were not removed in earlier stages are removed in this stage. The effectiveness is based on how well the treated water is made. Reducing the amount of germs in waste water before it is released into the environment is the primary goal of disinfection. Ozone, chlorine, and ultraviolet (UV) rays are used in disinfection procedures to get rid of hazardous compounds in wastewater. This process eliminates hazardous pollutants like phosphorus, nitrogen, and others.
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