Large volumes of water are typically consumed and produced in conjunction with the extraction of oil and gas, for a variety of purposes. The industry is focused on decreasing water usage, strengthening reuse and recycling opportunities, developing treatment technologies, and expanding disposal choices, since it is aware of its need on water.
Netsol Water offers comprehensive, sustainable solutions for the treatment of water and effluent in the oil and gas industry, while taking into account a variety of technologies and methods, as per CPCB guidelines for effluent treatment plants in the oil industries.
Solutions for effluent treatment in oil industries
· Sulphate removal
· Desalination of water
· Neutralisation of brine
· Zero liquid discharge (evaporation/crystallization)
· Coarse and fine filtering
· The removal of hydrocarbons
· The separation of oil and water, and
· The removal of solids
Applications of our Effluent Treatment Plants in the oil drilling industry
· Offshore/Onshore produced water
· Recycling and reuse
· Water injection for improved oil recovery
Advantages of our Effluent Treatment Plants in the oil drilling industry
· Designed and engineered solutions for specialized water and equipment requirements
· Turnkey systems for efficient water and wastewater reuse, including design, engineering, manufacturing, automation, installation, maintenance, and training
· With a full team of engineers, the company can provide the best online support, as well as on-site service and support
What are the CPCB Guidelines for ETP Plant in oil drilling industry?
· Standards for liquid effluent
1: On-Shore facilities (For Marine Disposal)
Oil & Grease 10 mg/l
Suspended solids 100 mg/l
BOD (3 days at 27oC) 30 mg/l
In order to protect marine aquatic life, proper marine outfall must be provided for on-shore discharge of effluents, in addition to the standards outlined above, within a distance of 50 metres from the discharge point, in order to achieve the individual pollutant concentration level in sea water below their toxicity limits, as given below:
Parameter Toxicity limit, mg/l
Chromium as Cr 0.1
Copper as Cu 0.05
Cyanide as CN 0.005
Fluoride as F 1.5
Lead as Pb 0.05
Mercury as Hg 0.01
Nickel as Ni 0.1
Zinc as Zn 0.1
Oil and gas drilling and processing facilities that are on land, and away from a saline water sink, have a choice between re-injecting treated water into an abandoned well, which is permitted only below a depth of 1000 metres from the surface, or disposing of treated water by on-shore disposal.
Re-injection into an abandoned well merely requires that the effluent, adhere to the following standards:
Suspended particles 100 mg/l
Oil and grease 10 mg/l
Permitted limits for the onshore disposal
The permitted limits for onshore disposal are listed:
S.No. Parameter On-shore discharge standards (Not to exceed)
1. pH 5.5—9.0
2. Temperature 40oC
3. Suspended Solids 100 mg/l
4. Zinc 2 mg/l
5. BOD 30 mg/l
6. COD 100 mg/l
7. Chlorides 600 mg/l
8. Sulphates 1000 mg/l
9. TDS 2100 mg/l
10. %Sodium 60 mg/l
11. Oil and Grease 10 mg/l
12. Phenolic 1.2 mg/l
13. Cyanides 0.2 mg/l
14. Fluorides 1.5 mg/l
15. Sulphides 2.0 mg/l
16. Chromium(Cr+6) 0.1 mg/l
17. Chromium (Total) 1.0 mg/l
18. Copper 0.2 mg/l
19. Lead 0.1 mg/l
20. Mercury 0.01 mg/l
21. Nickel 3.0 mg/l
2: Offshore infrastructure
The oil concentration of the treated effluent without dilution shall not exceed 40 mg/l, for 95% of the observation and shall never exceed 100 mg/l for off-shore discharge of effluents.
Daily collection of three 8-hourly grab samples is necessary, and the average oil and grease level of the three samples must meet these limits.
· Drilling and cutting fluid disposal for offshore installations
(a) It is not permitted to use diesel base mud. Offshore drilling is only allowed with WBM. Operators must inform MoEF/SPCB if they plan to utilize low toxicity OBM or SBM, to address specific hole issues in the formation. The low toxicity OBM should have 1% or less aromatic material.
(b) According to mysid toxicity tests or toxicity tests conducted on locally accessible sensitive marine species, the toxicity of chemical additives employed in the DF (WBM, OBM, or SBM), should be biodegradable (primarily organic ingredients) and should have a 96-hour LC-50 value > 30,000 mg/l.
(c) It is not recommended to utilize hexavalent chromium compound in DF.
(d) Bulk discharge of DF offshore is not permitted unless it is an emergency.
(e) WBM, OBM, and SBM should all be recycled as much as possible. The unusable component of OBM must be carried onshore for treatment and disposal, in an impermeable waste disposal pit rather than being dumped into the ocean.
(f) To have proper dilution and dispersion without any negative effects on the marine environment, thoroughly washed DC separated from WBM/SBM and unusable portion of WBM/SBM, with toxicity of 96 hr L-C50 > 30,000 mg/l shall be discharged off-shore into sea intermittently, at an average rate of 50 bbl/hr/well from a platform.
(g) The Ministry of Environment and Forests has designated sensitive sites, where drilling of any composition is prohibited.
(h) In the event of a specific hole issue, OBM usage will be restricted with no DC discharge. Zero discharge would involve bringing the DC to shore for proper disposal, or re-injecting it into a suitable configuration. Use of OBM for re-injection in such a situation ought to be documented, and made available to the regulatory body. At the installation, such low-toxic OBM with an aromatic concentration of less than 1% should be made accessible.
(i) DC disposal shouldn't have oil content greater than 10 gm/kg, if DC is connected to high oil content from hydrocarbon bearing deposit.
(j) Before being dumped into the sea, the DC wash water should be treated to validate the limitations reported under the EPA. Regular monitoring should be done of the treated effluent.
(k) DC discharge from a facility within five kilometres of the shore, should guarantee that there are no negative effects on the shore and marine ecosystem. The industries must bring the DC onshore for disposal in an impermeable waste disposal pit, if a negative impact is noticed.
(l) Environmentally friendly technology that replaces DF and disposal methods, may be brought to the attention of MoEF and regulatory organisations. A prior approval from the Ministry of Environment and Forests is necessary, if the operator wishes to employ such environmentally beneficial technology.
(m) Barite used to prepare DF must not contain more than 1 mg/kg of mercury, or 3 mg/kg of cadmium.
(n) Oil drilling operators are obliged to record daily DC & DF discharge to offshore locations, as well as daily effluent quality monitoring, and to submit a compliance report to the Ministry of Environment and Forests once every six months.
Produced water generated from offshore and onshore activities in the oil drilling process
Although, historically thought of as a waste product, produced water from oil and gas extraction processes can be transformed into usable water, through a number of treatment techniques.
· By using coagulant injection, solid and oil particles are primarily joined together.
· Oil and water separation equipment is then used to remove, consolidated solids and oil particles from water.
· A multimedia filter or ultrafiltration technology may remove small particles.
· The recovered hydrocarbons can subsequently be extracted using an adsorbent filter.
· Desalination technologies, such as softeners, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and ion exchange, where dissolved ions and other impurities are extracted from the water, can be used when the water is free of particles and oil.
By recovering up to 80–90% of the produced water, Netsol Water will create a clean water stream with high quality standards, which may be safely discharged into the environment or used in other processes.
Reuse and recycling of the produced water in the oil drilling process
Oil and gas producers reduce discharges, minimize subterranean injection of waste water, and conserve water resources by recycling and reusing wastewater, to replace or complement the use of natural water sources in their processes.
For the removal of particles, conventional technologies like coagulation/flocculation with sedimentation, and multimodal filtration can be utilized. The dissolved ions can subsequently be eliminated using ion exchange or reverse osmosis. Evaporation/crystallization can be used to treat the reverse osmosis brine in the end, enabling complete wastewater utilization.
Effluent treatment plant manufacturers and suppliers for the oil industries
Netsol operates as a company that constantly pushes itself to ensure quality, business continuity, continuous improvement, sustainability, happy customers, safe working conditions, and pollution prevention, all in compliance with laws and rules.
All of your inquiries will be addressed by our courteous and professional engineers. Each of our system is built with all membranes, pumps, controls, manuals, filters, operations, and piping installed and ready to use, making them plug-and-play systems.