One of the most important resources that man has so far used, for the continuation of his life, is regarded to be water. The amount of water on Earth is getting scarcer by the day. It is essential for every facet of life.
How much water available on Earth?
According to reports, the seas encompass 70.8 % (361.2 million km2) of the Earth's surface, while ice covers around 3.16 % (more than 16.1 million km2) of it. In total, lakes occupy about 2 million km2 (0.39 %). With rivers and wetlands included, the total area of our planet that is covered by water is over 75 %, or around 2.7 million km2.
Despite the fact that 75% of our planet is covered in water, of the remaining fresh water (2.5%), just 1% is usable for human use and can be extracted. Ninety-seven and a half percent of all water is found in the oceans.
Importance of water
Water has special qualities that make it a "Unique Engineering Material".
1. The only substance in the crust of the earth that can exist in three states: solid, liquid, and gaseous.
2. The only material that expands when it freezes; greatest density at 4 degrees Celsius. Due to these characteristics, it is feasible to find water in hilly areas and other cooler regions of our planet's surface, during the chilly winter months.
3. Water is utilized as a coolant in a cooling water system and for power generation in boiler systems of thermal power plants, because it has the highest Specific Heat (1 deg. C), which indicates that it has the largest heat exchange capability.
Growing scarcity of water
At the start of the twenty-first century, the world as a whole and emerging nations like India in particular, are suffering from the lack of clean and safe water supply, due to the tremendous population expansion, rapid urbanisation, and industrialisation. Furthermore, environmental problems like climate change and global warming are anticipated, to lower water tables and alter water supplies in many places, making the future cost and energy requirements for obtaining water even higher.
Causes of contaminated water or particularly wastewater
According to a UNEP report, two million tonnes of sewage, industrial, and agricultural waste are dumped into the world's rivers each year, and one child under the age of five dies from a water-related disease every 20 seconds, or 1.8 million children worldwide.
More people die as a result of contaminated water than are killed by all types of violence, including wars, and more than half of the beds in hospitals across the world are occupied by patients with these illnesses. By 2025, two-thirds of the world's population may be living in stressful conditions, and 800 million people would be facing a freshwater shortage. There are 1.1 billion individuals who lack access to any source of clean drinking water.
Embracing a Turbulent Future in India
India will have a major water problem over the next 20 year. By 2020, India is predicted to be a "water challenged" state, with per capita availability falling to 1600 cubic metres per person per year. When a country's per capita water availability falls below 1700 cubic metres per person per year, it is said to be under water stress.
The management of water and wastewater has a direct effect on the biological richness of aquatic ecosystems, upsetting the fundamental integrity of our life support systems, which are essential to a variety of industries and sectors, ranging from urban growth to food production.
Water and wastewater management must be viewed as an integral aspect of ecosystem-based integrated management that sustainably manages freshwater and marine systems, across sectors and boundaries.
Water treatment plant manufacturers in India
Netsol Water provides the best water and wastewater treatment in India, thanks to its numerous installations in various sectors. We are aware of the demands and the characteristics of the effluent that each manufacturing sector produces. We therefore create a wastewater treatment system that is unique to each need.