How to Air stream Odour control in Landfills?
Solid waste is generated by businesses, industries, and residents alike. The most environmentally friendly approach to municipal solid waste management is to reduce or reuse waste wherever possible, recycle or compost waste, and dispose of waste in landfills only when necessary. Although solid waste management is an important community service, it can have an unpleasant side effect – stinky odours. Because transfer stations are cleared of waste on a daily basis, odour complaints about those facilities are uncommon.
All aspects of solid waste management are, by definition, smelly. Municipal sludge and solid waste, landfills, composting, and co-composting facilities all emit offensive odours to workers and the general public. The solid waste process is complicated, involving multiple drop-offs, collections, transfers, and sorting of recyclable and non-recyclable materials. Combustible materials can also be incinerated for energy generation, resulting in even more foul odours.
What's this odour?
When buried solid waste decomposes, landfill gas is produced. This process produces gases, the most common of which are methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), which together account for more than 95 percent of landfill gas. While these two gases have no odour, the unpleasant odours are caused by a small percentage of other gases. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and volatile organic compounds are the most common causes of landfill odors (VOCs). Hydrogen sulphide is best known for having a strong "rotten egg" odour. Volatile organics have a slightly sweetly pungent odour that can vary.
Why does the intensity of the odour change from day to day?
The migration of landfill gas is affected by a number of atmospheric conditions, including:
1: Rainfall/Barometric Pressure
On days when the barometric pressure is low or falling, the gas pressure inside the landfill will be higher than the surrounding atmosphere. This causes the landfill gas to escape and rebalance with the atmosphere. Because barometric pressure drops are frequently associated with rainfall, odours may be detectable before and after rainfall events.
Inversions can occur during the colder months when warm air is trapped above cold air closer to the ground. This slows the normal rise of the gas, causing concentrations closer to the ground and thus a stronger odour.
Wind disperses any escaped gas and reduces its concentration, but on days with little wind, odours may be more noticeable.
4: Phases of the Moon
Certain moon phases also influence gas migration, similar to how the lunar pull influences tides. The gravitational pull of a New or Full Moon can facilitate landfill gas migration.
What are the Solutions?
The current approaches to odour measurement and regulation differ greatly between local jurisdictions, states, and countries. Regulatory tools have ranged from relatively simple qualitative measurements or checklists of perceived odour and/or specific chemicals to the more complex use of electronic nose technology and atmospheric dispersion models to predict the effects of odour on neighboring receptors.
Agitation exacerbates the odour, as it does with most odours. Bad odours increase when solid waste is unloaded or compost rows are turned. Products can be used to control these odours and put in place an effective landfill odour control solution, whether in a localized area or to surround a composting shed or landfill. Dispersion systems can also be added to on-site hardware to control odours produced by machinery such as graders and tillers.
Some measurements that characterize a specific odorant in terms of chemical composition and concentration are objective, repeatable, and accurate; however, they provide little information about odour perception by human receptors and can only detect known odorant compounds on an individual basis, making analysis time-consuming and costly.
Identifying, sampling, and quantifying the concentrations of all odorants from all odour sources should be used to estimate the odour contribution of waste facilities. However, due to the wide variety of compounds known to cause odours in industrial facilities, this is extremely difficult to achieve.
However, based on psychological testing, seven primary classes of olfactory stimulants have been identified as eliciting distinct responses in distinct human olfactory cells. Each of these classes can contain a wide range of compounds that contribute to the odour profile, many of which lack analytical methods.
With these general constraints in mind, there are currently a number of odour detection techniques in use. Field and laboratory olfactometry, electronic noses with chemical sensors (artificial olfaction), atmospheric dispersion modelling, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) are examples, but no single method has been demonstrated to effectively quantify odour annoyance, and most odour measurement techniques currently available rely on subjective human assessment for detection, calibration, and validation.
What can Netsol Water provide?
Netsol Water is a significant water and wastewater treatment firm in India, offering WTP, WWTP, STP, and ETP manufacture, among other services. The company creates equipment’s and is committed to providing practical solutions that help businesses flourish.
Flotation, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, adsorption, membranes, initial settling, secondary activated sludge, anaerobic digestion, Odour control techniques and even carbon dioxide or methane recovery for further uses are just a few of them. We are committed to providing our valued customers with hands-on service, expert counselling, and training.