How does industrialization in India contribute to water pollution?
Industrial pollutants and effluents contaminate the majority of rivers and other freshwater sources in India. The aquatic species that consumes this water is poisoned by all of these industrial contaminants.
In this blog, we will learn about the pollution of water caused by industrialisation in India.
· Water pollution which is caused by thermal power plants(TPP) in India
As per some sources, a total of 83,048 MLD of wastewater is produced by all significant industrial sources, including 66,700 MLD of cooling water. Thermal power plants also produce an additional 7,275 MLD of wastewater as boiler blowdown water, and ash pond overflow from the 16,348 MLD of wastewater that is left.
· Water pollution which is caused by electroplating and other industries
The second-largest volume source of wastewater is the engineering sector. The main polluting industries in this category are electroplating facilities. The paper, steel, textile, and sugar sectors are some of the other major sources of wastewater. In terms of organic load, distilleries and paper mills are the main sources of water pollution.
· Water pollution which is caused by large scale industries (LSIs)
Both large and small-scale enterprises are responsible for the water contamination. Despite the fact that many large-scale enterprises assert to have built expensive wastewater treatment and disposal equipment, this equipment frequently isn't in good functioning condition.
· Water pollution which is caused by small scale industries(SSIs)
No less than large-scale enterprises, small-scale and cottage industries also pollute the environment. In India, there are roughly 3 million small and cottage-scale industrial businesses. These facilities lack the necessary sanitation and waste disposal systems, but they continue to use highly polluting production techniques, like chrome plating, leather tanning, the use of Azo dyes in fabrics, the use of cadmium in ornaments and silverware, the production of dye intermediaries and other refractory and toxic chemicals, etc.
Their solid wastes and sludges are dispersed over the area or deposited in open pits, and their effluents either stagnate in depressions, or flow to streams through storm drains to percolate, leach, or wash off during the following rainy season.
Water pollution due to industrialisation in India
Domestic and industrial sources of pollution have quite varied contamination levels. In India, water pollution is a significant environmental problem. Untreated sewage is the main cause of water contamination. Additional sources of contamination include unregulated small-scale industries and runoff from agriculture.
The majority of India's rivers, lakes, and surface waters are contaminated by industries, untreated sewage, and solid waste. Despite India receiving an average of 4000 billion cubic metres of precipitation each year, there are only roughly 1122 billion cubic metres of water resources that can be used because of a lack of infrastructure. Since, pollution lowers water quality, a large portion of this water is hazardous. Eventually, the amount of water that is available to Indian consumers, industry, and agriculture is severely constrained by water pollution.
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