With so many options available, it might be difficult to find a solution to water treatment problems. There are several issues that municipalities and commercial enterprises may face, and each issue may have a number of solutions.
In this article, we will discuss about the applications of Granular media filtration, as a way of water treatment for municipalities and commercial establishments.
What is sand filtration?
Sand filtration is one of the earliest types of granular media filtration for water treatment, which is still widely employed today. Other kinds of media have been found and created over time, which can either work in addition to or instead of sand as a filtration media, to remove impurities.
Here is a list of some typical water treatment problems that can arise for municipalities and commercial enterprises.
Issues with water/Contaminants in water
· Traces of metals
Metals in drinking water are not very healthy, and they are also not very good for plants. The risks of lead in drinking water are well known. Children are especially harmed, since they are more likely to absorb lead. Anaemia and brain disorders can develop, if this pollutant is exposed to large enough doses. Arsenic, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and copper, are only a few examples of other trace metals that are of concern.
In addition to being naturally created by biological decomposition processes, ammonia can enter water sources through industrial output. Municipal or industrial establishments must treat it in order to prevent it.
Although, extended exposure to ammonia in drinking water may not be as harmful to people, as its gaseous form, it may have certain negative effects. Most often, higher amounts are harmful to plant life and aquatic life. Most standard treatment techniques have a hard time getting rid of it.
Usually, petroleum mining and refining operations produce hydrocarbons. These pollutants must be handled by a lot of business facilities, but it's not improbable, that they could also end up in minute amounts at municipal treatment plants. Depending on their hydrogen and carbon content, the many distinct forms of hydrocarbons can have a variety of health impacts.
Volatile organic compounds are chemical substances that contain carbon, and are capable of existing at room temperature as a gas. At sufficient concentrations, several of them are carcinogenic, while others can have negative effects on the organ and neurological systems.
These VOCs can come from a wide range of commercial and industrial sources, and many things used in and around the typical home, include them as well.
Similar to how ammonia is employed as a disinfectant in water treatment facilities, chlorine is also a component of several household cleaners. Chlorine has been demonstrated to have harmful effects on health at high enough quantities, but it can also cause piping systems to deteriorate. It is corrosive, especially when stainless steel is present.
The chlorine's ability to produce disinfection by-products (DPBs) in the presence of specific organic compounds, poses the biggest concern, though. Trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids are some of these DBPs. Two specific types of trihalomethanes—bromoform and dibromochloromethane—are the primary contributors to human health issues.
If you turn on the faucet and the water is reddish-brown, your water contains iron. In low dosages, iron itself isn't especially toxic to humans, aside from the unpleasant colour and taste. Actually, the risk is caused by the presence of bacteria that consumes iron.
However, higher amounts can result in skin problems and, at worst, hemochromatosis. This is brought on by iron overload, and may result in diabetes, liver, heart, and pancreatic issues. It could also result in gastrointestinal problems like nausea or vomiting.
Homeowners occasionally become familiar with the degree of hardness in their water. When minerals like calcium and magnesium are present in water at levels high enough, they start to precipitate out. In pipes, sinks, tubs, and other water-using fixtures and systems, this process leads to accumulation.
The water can have an unpleasant flavour and leave a coating of scum in your hair, or on your skin, after a shower.
What are the problems associated with these contaminants in the water?
· Sand filters becoming clogged
This problem is more about equipment effects than health effects. Sand filters are a very typical type of filtration systems. These are reasonably priced and efficient; however they may have problems when applying sand quickly or slowly. Filters snarl up. Based on their approach of treatment, the outcome is simple and evident.
For continuing use, after that point, back washing or skimming is required. This is something that sand filters regularly need. Slow sand filters often cannot manage high loads for an extended period of time, since the majority of their filtering occurs in the top few inches of the bed.
· Activated Carbon
There are several kinds of activated carbon, but coconut shell activated carbon is one of the varieties making a name for itself, in the water treatment industry. It is made by heating coconut shells in an oxygen-free environment to produce charcoal, which is then physically or chemically activated to burn off carbon and other volatile substances, and reveal a dense network of holes.
The surface area that is available for adsorption and absorption, which is crucial in the removal of substances other than suspended particles, is considerably increased by these pores.
It can be used as a standalone polishing filter or as a supplement to a multimedia filter. Hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), specific other organics, chlorine, and trace lead, can all be removed from water using activated carbon.
An extremely hard type of coal called anthracite has been used to create granular media filtration products. It can be used as a single filter medium; however, multimedia filters with garnet and sand perform best when using it. It resolves the problem of clogged sand filters.
Anthracite is utilized as a top layer because it is less dense than sand. Particles can delve deeper into the filtration bed, thanks to the angular and homogeneous granules of this material. A deeper solids penetration will shorten the intervals between backwash cycles, and lower the system's head loss.
In addition, the agitation produced by the angular granules makes backwash cycles more efficient.
Despite being significantly more expensive, the micro porous aluminosilicate zeolite has replaced sand filters in several applications. However, it has a loading capacity that is almost three times greater than that of sand, which helps with problems like excessive back washing and head loss.
Additionally, this granular filtering media product has the unusual capacity to function by exchanging ions. This enables it to filter out more highly charged contaminants like hydrocarbons, ammonia, and trace metals, while still functioning as a water softener when necessary.