What is a Sewage System?
Sewage System or more commonly known as Sewerage is the infrastructure that uses sewers to transport sewage or surface runoff (stormwater, meltwater, rainwater). Receiving drains, manholes, pumping stations, storm overflows, and screening chambers are all included in the combined sewer or sanitary sewer. When sewage enters a sewage treatment plant or is discharged into the environment, it is considered to be terminated. It is a network of pipes, chambers, manholes, and other structures used to transport sewage or storm water.
In many cities, sewage (or municipal wastewater) is carried in a combined sewer system with stormwater to a sewage treatment plant. In some cities, sewage is carried separately in sanitary sewers, while street runoff is carried in storm drains. For maintenance purposes, these systems are typically accessed through a manhole. During heavy rains, a sewer system may experience a combined sewer overflow or a sanitary sewer overflow, forcing untreated sewage to flow directly into receiving waters. This has the potential to endanger public health and the environment.
There are three types of a sewage system:
· Sanitary sewers
· Storm sewers
· Combined sewers
A sanitary sewer's primary function is to transport waste from homes and businesses to wastewater treatment plants. These systems are intended to handle human waste and easily degradable manufactured solids such as toilet paper and tissues. These systems are made up of miles of piping, manholes, and pumping stations that move waste through the system.
These sanitary sewage systems work by transporting human waste from the home through small plumbing pipes to gradually larger pipes outside, until it reaches the main sewer line in the street. The sewage is then transported to a wastewater treatment plant, where it is treated and safely returned to the environment.
Storm sewers collect and transport rainwater, snowmelt, and irrigation runoff into storm drains in parking lots, streets, and gutters. These drains are connected by an underground pipe network that transports water directly to rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water without treatment at a treatment plant.
The storm sewer system, in contrast to the sanitary sewer system, which transports waste to a treatment plant, transports untreated runoff water directly into our environment. Every drop of water that enters that storm drain enters our waterways.
3-Combined sewer systems
These are exactly what they sound like: sewer systems. They are a hybrid of sanitary sewer and storm sewer systems. They are rarely used nowadays due to the potential health risks to people and the environment.The way combined sewers work is that they collect all of the water from rain and snow into a pipe and then add human waste to the same pipe. In an ideal world, this system would pump these combined wastes to a treatment plant, where they would be safely returned to the environment.
However, during times of heavy rain or flooding, these systems can back up and overflow, allowing untreated wastewater to enter the environment. As a result, dangerous pathogens and pollutants can enter the environment, posing a serious threat to people's health.
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