What are the WWTP methods in dairy processing industries?
Dairy industry has expanded in most nations due to increased demand for milk and milk products. This surge has resulted in the expansion of dairy industry. This industry's wastewater has high amounts of nutrients, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), and organic and inorganic substances, which can create major environmental concerns if not adequately handled. Because of their high biodegradability, standard biological treatment procedures are appropriate for dairy wastewaters.
Long chain fatty acids produced during lipid hydrolysis, on the other hand, have inhibitory activity during anaerobic treatment. The most pressing task is to develop cost-effective and ecologically friendly ways to water reuse and waste management. As a result, other treatment technologies including coagulation, adsorption, membrane, and electrolysis procedures are being investigated as alternatives to biological treatment approaches.
What is Coagulation and Flocculation?
Flocculation/coagulation techniques are used to remove suspended, colloidal, and dissolved materials from wastewater, and they are applied directly to raw wastewater. The procedure may be separated into two parts.
-The first, coagulation, is a process in which chemicals (coagulant agents) such as iron or aluminium are utilized to overcome the elements that favour system stability.
-The second phase, flocculation, brings together destabilized particles, which may then be readily separated by gravity settling.
What is the process of Adsorption?
Adsorption has been discovered to be an appealing method for removing organic chemicals from wastewater. Adsorbents come in a variety of forms, including activated carbon, synthetic polymeric, and silica-based adsorbents. Because of its low cost and capacity to absorb a wide spectrum of organic molecules, activated carbon is the most beneficial. Physical and chemical adsorption are the two types of adsorption. Adsorption onto solid surfaces has a wide range of uses, including the removal of organics, chemicals, heavy metals, and so on. Low-cost adsorbents include fly ash, rice husk ash, bagasse fly ash, and activated carbon.
The process of Membranes
Microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, dialysis, electrodialysis, and reverse osmosis are all potential membrane technologies.
Membrane filtration is the removal or separation of particle and colloidal substances from a liquid using a selective barrier that is generally 0.0001–1.0 m thick.
Several studies focused on membrane operations for the treatment of dairy effluent. The usage of membrane filtering technology provides several benefits to the user.
What is Electrochemical Method?
Electrolysis is the use of an electrical charge to degrade organic or inorganic compounds. In an electrolytic cell with an anode and a cathode, oxidation and reduction processes take place. When an electric current is applied to a cell, negative ions migrate to the anode and positive ions move to the cathode, and cations are reduced and anions are oxidized at both electrodes.
EC is a major wastewater treatment method that involves inducing the controlled electrogeneration of flocculants/coagulants on-site, often using a constant current. It is a complicated process that involves various chemical and physical processes, including the generation of iron or aluminium cations from the dissolution of the matching sacrificial anode(s) and the simultaneous production of OH anions from cathodic reduction of water.
Various techniques have been developed in various nations throughout the world to remediate industrial effluent from milk and dairy products. Factors such as the initial investment and running expenses in the selection of treatment technologies, the existence of competent employees for the organization, and the requirement for treatment to guarantee the rules followed are all important considerations.
Netsol Water is the leading manufacturer of waste water treatment systems for a wide range of businesses.