What are the Water related problems in India?
Water affects every part of life, and in India, concerns about access to and availability of this essential resource may be nearing crisis proportions!
As India's economy and population continue to move dramatically, competing demands for this scarce resource from households, industry, and agriculture have far-reaching repercussions for the country's future. There could be serious implications if nothing is done.
The World Health Organization estimates that 97 million Indians, second only to China, do not have access to safe drinking water. As a result, the World Bank estimates that unclean water is responsible for 21% of infectious diseases in India. Over time, contaminated rivers and inadequate storage infrastructure have caused a water shortage that may become untenable in the future.
What are the problems and issues that India is facing that are related directly to water?
1: First problem is that of increasing population. According to estimates, 600 million Indians could be living in slums by 2030 due to the country's rapidly rising population. Tanker mafias are well-known as a result of this.
Who are these tanker mafias?
Owners of septic tanks that illegally sell water from lakes, wells, and groundwater are known as tanker mafias.They price roughly Rs. 3,740.5/ 1,000 litres, which is beyond of reach for most Indians.In the city of Hyderabad, 3,245 hectares of lakes evaporated between 2001 and 2012. Tanker mafias force the water to recede by nine feet each year on average in Southern New Delhi.
While India's city drinking water systems have improved in terms of availability and quality over the last few decades, the country's increasing population has put a strain on projected water resources, and rural areas have been left out. Furthermore, rising urbanization in India has strained Government solutions, which have been harmed by over-privatization.
2: Secondly, water contamination or water pollution in India is primarily caused by oil spills, insufficient wastewater treatment, poor sanitation, and open defecation. By drinking contaminated water, harmful bacteria enter the human digestive system, disrupting the gut's equilibrium and causing diarrhea and other illnesses.Despite advances to drinking water, many other water sources are contaminated with bio and chemical contaminants, and water-related ailments account for over 21% of all diseases. In addition, just 33% of the population has access to traditional sanitation.
3: Untreated sewage is also the most significant cause of the water pollution in India. There are other sources of pollution, such as agricultural runoff and unregulated small-scale industry units. The problem is so bad that there may not be a single body of water in India that isn't polluted in some way.
4: One of the difficulties is the rapid depletion of groundwater in India, which is known as the world's greatest user of this resource due to the widespread use of drilling in recent decades. In rural areas, groundwater from over 30 million access points provides 85% of drinking water and 48% of water requirements in urban areas. Without action, the problem is certain to worsen. India is expected to develop rapidly in the next decades, overtaking China to become the world's most populated country by 2028.Many rural Indian communities on the edges of urban development have little choice but to drill wells in order to access groundwater sources.
5: Another fear is that India may not have enough replenishable water resources in the long run. While India's aquifers are currently associated with replenishment sources, the country is also a large grain producer with a high demand for water. Excess water use for food production depletes the entire water table, as it does in all countries with substantial agricultural output.
6: The absence of Government planning, rising business privatization, industrial and personal waste, and government corruption are all blamed for India's water crisis. Furthermore, India's water constraint is predicted to intensify as the country's population grows to 1.6 billion people by 2050.As a result, worldwide water shortage is anticipated to become a major source of national political conflict in the future, and India is no exception.
Other significant factors contributing to India's rising levels of water pollution include:
1: Industrial waste;
2: Improper agricultural practices;
3: Reduction in water quantity in plain rivers;
4: Social and religious practices such as dumping dead bodies in water, bathing, and throwing waste in water;
5: Oil leaks from ships;
6: Acid rain;
7: Global warming;
9: Inadequate industrial wastewater treatment.
In this regard, wastewater treatment and disposal has also been a big challenge, leading to India’s poor water quality with drastic consequences!
1: Around 70% of wastewater is untreated, and over 40 million litres of effluent runs straight into India's lakes, rivers, and ocean every day. Contaminated water eventually finds its way into the groundwater. As a result, appropriate waste management and sewage contamination are impossible, causing the irrigation system to malfunction.Because of the contagious germs and sickness in the water, the crops are unable to grow.
2: Every year, 38 million Indians get waterborne diseases such as typhoid, cholera, and hepatitis as a result of poor infrastructure and a lack of sewage treatment. The frequency of these ailments has remained constant throughout the last decade.
3: Waterborne infections kill more children under the age of five than AIDS, TB, and measles combined. In India, water pollution not only jeopardizes people's health and food security, but it also contributes to the country's GDP decline and economic stagnation. When pollution in the country's waterbodies surpasses a particular level, not only does GDP growth drop by a third, but agricultural revenues drop by 9% in the districts closest to industrial zones.
4: The loss of Rs. 5920/- billion per year in India is due to environmental degradation, especially water contamination. Meanwhile, estimates show that the annual health expenses of treating waterborne infections are about Rs. 666/ billion.
What are the actions? taken by India to combat Water Pollution & crises?
From flocculation and reuse of industrial water to contributions from local Indian businesses, India is taking many initiatives to improve the quality of its water supply.
-Industrial water reuse in Chennai, a city in Eastern India, increased from 36,000 to 80,000 cubic meters in three years, from 2016 to 2019.
-The Government of Gujarat, a state with a population of more than 70 million people, announced the “Reuse of Treated Waste Water Policy”, which intends to substantially reduce the use of the Narmada River. It plans to build 161 sewage treatment plants across Gujarat so that the cleaned water can be used in the industrial and construction sectors.
According to reports, the Indian Government installed about 16,000 reverse osmosis systems in Karnataka in 2015, as well as 281 solar electrolytic de-fluoridation facilities in Madhya Pradesh.
The following suggestions address the most pressing concerns about India's water shortage!
First, the Federal and State Governments should provide local communities with knowledge, understanding, and real-time data about groundwater conditions so that extraction may be managed cooperatively. Farmers extract as much groundwater as they can because it is an open resource. However, if everyone does this, extraction will rise above a sustainable level. Only a cooperative agreement among aquifer users, who should know how much may be collected without depleting the resource, can solve this problem. This information can be monitored and provided by the state.
Second, India must encourage the development of watersheds. The state of Gujarat have demonstrated that this technique is both effective and profitable. Furthermore, it can be carried out at the local level across the country and in a relatively short period of time.
Third, India must educate its citizens on the importance of dams for water storage. Environmentalists and other anti-dam groups should engage in a debate to come up with alternatives and reach a consensus.
Fourth, State Pollution control bodies should be strengthened in order to enforce effluent requirements. The boards' current technology and human resources are insufficient to adequately monitor activity, enforce regulations, and prosecute violators.
Fifth, Many cities treat only a portion of the wastewater, and some process no more than half of it. Cities must charge a fair price for water in order for local sewage treatment plant owners to have enough cash and resources to adequately maintain treatment plants. India should collaborate with private companies to improve urban water distribution infrastructure if necessary.
If India implements these recommendations at all levels—federal, state, and local—it will be a huge step forward in tackling the country's most pressing water challenges.
India's water issue and our effort to alleviate it!
There is no one-size-fits-all answer to the worldwide water crisis, which affects millions of people around the world.
Netsol Water Solutions has a significant presence in India and is well positioned to help stimulate a national effort to address the country's water crisis. We are the large water and wastewater treatment company in India that manufactures WTPs, WWTPs, STPs, ETPs, Industrial & Commercial RO Plants, among other services. We give our 100 percent in converting the wastewater into best possible treated water, as we are committed to do so.
If you feel curious about the idea of treating water or wastewater, even if you want to know about solid waste management, then you can talk to our experts and settle down your doubts. Also, if you need help designing an efficient wastewater treatment system or a water treatment system, contact us.