In wastewater treatment, all wastestreams are made up of solid and liquid components.
A: The initial step in the treatment procedure is to separate as much of the solid components as possible from the liquid ones. These procedures may include the use of bar screens, sedimentation basins of various types, clarifiers, other separation technologies including centrifugation, physical measures, and even chemical treatment.
B: The second phase entails treating the liquid components using chemical and biological processes. A common method involves the use of activated sludge and ancillary procedures such as oxygenation and chemical "charging" to destroy pollutants that have negative environmental effects (toxic ions and organic compounds) or that have both a direct and indirect environmental effect by lowering aqueous oxygen levels.
C: All subsequent phases in wastewater treatment are classified as tertiary treatment. These typically comprise ways for removing additional liquid-phase components, improved treatment technologies for further separation of difficult-to-remove solid components, and remediation and treatment of generated sludges caused by solid-phase components.
What are the various separation technologies for wastewater?
To retain particles in suspension or even dissolved chemicals from a fluid, a variety of separation technologies can be applied. These strategies can be categorized based on the magnitude on which they are based to perform separation.
1: Decantation and centrifugation: These are separation procedures that leverage particle mass and density differences with respect to the solvent to produce separation. The more particles there are, the easier it is to separate them.
2: Membrane technologies:Reverse osmosis is a process based on the differing diffusion or permeability of substances as they traverse a barrier.As a result, while the solvent easily permeates the membrane, suspended particles and those dissolved in the solvent are unable, or find it extremely difficult, to traverse the membrane. This is also true for dialysis and electrodialysis, however in the latter case, an electrical potential is used to drive separation.
3: Ion-Exchange:The ionic charge is what allows differences between some ions and others to be established in the event of ion exchange. For example, if a resin is cationic, it will only exchange ions with positive charges (cations) and will not interact with negatively charged ions (anions).
Thus, depending on the extent of the differences that may be established between the particles or between the particles and the solvent, one or more techniques will be used to separate diverse compounds.
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