What are the various Frictional Losses in Pumped Sludge Pipelines?
Friction loss is the loss of head (or pressure) in a pipeline caused by the resistance to flow that exists when liquid or slurry passes through it. As a result of the resistance, the pumping pressure and fluid velocity are reduced.
Frictional energy loss is influenced by a number of factors, including the following:
i) The friction between the fluid and the piping walls causes larger losses due to the rough inside surface.
ii) Larger viscosity fluids have higher losses due to friction between adjacent fluids.
iii) When fluid is redirected via a sharp turn in the pipe or a limitation – such as a valve, fitting, or reducer – turbulence is formed.
iv) High flow rates result in significant losses.
v) Longer pipes and pipelines with smaller diameters have more losses.
This loss might diminish the system's supplied tonnages and have a detrimental impact on the total flow rate. Friction losses can add up over time, causing an otherwise well-tuned slurry process to become inefficient. An operator can minimize friction losses and guarantee that their pump works at the specified duty point by accurately calculating friction losses.
Pumping friction losses are basically of three types-
2: Homogeneous slurries of fine non-settling solids, and
3: Heterogeneous slurries of larger (settling) solids.
Solutions for reducing friction losses
1: Reduce the pipe system's internal surface roughness.
2: Increase the piping system's pipe diameter.
3: Keep the length of the piping system to a minimum.
4: Reduce the amount of elbows, tees, valves, fittings, and other obstructions in the pipe system by using moderate bends instead of 90-degree twists.
Sludge and its production
Sludge refers to semi-solid waste that has been filtered out of sewage liquids. The final result of wastewater treatment, whether biological or physical/chemical, is sludge, or residual solids.
The solids content of primary sludge ranges from 3 to 6%.
Composition of Sludge
The compositions of sewage sludge varies depending on the composition of wastewater and the processes used for its treatment. Irrespective of its origins, sludge contains water, organic and inorganic materials and suspended solids. Sludge of different qualities are produced from different biological unit operations.
Sludge from wastewater is made up of both inorganic and organic materials, as well as high concentrations of some plant nutrients and much lower concentrations of numerous trace elements and organic chemicals, as well as pathogens.
What is Sludge Piping?
During primary treatment, sludge pipelines are exposed to the harshness of several substances, such as:
2: Ferrous chloride;
4: Alkaline lime slurry;
5: Other clarifying and thickening chemicals.
Frictional losses in pumped sludge pipelines
The Darcy or Hazen-Williams procedures are used to deal with liquids. The Bingham slurry method takes care of non-settling slurries.
According to Hazen-Williams equation:
V = k C (D/4)0.63 S0.54
Where, S = hf / L
V = velocity
k = unit system conversion factor (k = 0.849 for SI units)
C = a roughness coefficient
R = the hydraulic radius
S = energy line slope (head loss per length of pipe or hf/L)
What can we offer?
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