Drinking water sources can be contaminated!
The disease-causing substances must be removed with proper treatment. To supply safe drinking water to the communities, public drinking water systems employ a variety of water treatment processes. The practicality, reliability, flexibility, and overall economics all play a role in the selection and design of water treatment processes for a specific facility.
It's also important to figure out how much water needs to be treated. This can be calculated by assuming that each individual uses 20–50 litres of water per day for drinking, cooking, laundry, personal hygiene, etc.
The following agents can pollute the water resources-
1: Pathogens are disease-causing organisms such as bacteria, amoebas, and viruses, as well as parasitic worm eggs and larvae;
2: Chemicals that are harmful (industrial wastes, pesticides, fertilizers);
3: Arsenic, common salt, and fluorides are examples of chemicals and minerals found in nature;
4: Non-harmful pollutants can alter the flavour, smell, colour, or temperature of water, making it unfit for consumption;
5: Surface water is frequently contaminated by bacteria, whereas groundwater is generally safer. However, even groundwater can be contaminated by dangerous compounds from surface sources.
How to Select of a Water Treatment System for Households?
When selecting a water-treatment system the community should be consulted and informed about the expenses connected with the technology. Community members, in particular, should be made aware of the behavioural and/or cultural changes required for the system to be effective in the long run and thus acceptable to them. Communities may also need to be educated and mobilized in order to preserve water sources from animal or human contamination. It's worth noting that all of a water-treatment system's benefits could be jeopardized if the water isn't drawn, stored, and transported safely and hygienically.
There are two types of household water treatment systems-Point-of-use and point-of-Entry.
Majority of the water entering a house is treated by point-of-entry (POE) devices, which are typically installed after the water meter. Systems that purify water in batches and send it to a tap, such as a bathroom sink or kitchenor an auxiliary faucet located next to a tap, are known as point-of-use (POU) systems.
The effectiveness of household water-treatment systems!
1: Reverse osmosis: These systems are excellent at filtering out a wide range of pollutants from water. A whole-house Reverse Osmosis system from Netsol Water Solutions might be the right solution when you have a high level of a specific contaminant that is most economically removed by reverse osmosis. For that specific contamination, a water treatment professional may offer whole home reverse osmosis as the best approach.
2: Water Softeners:A water softener is a device that lowers the water's hardness. It replaces calcium and magnesium ions, the ions that cause "hardness," with sodium or potassium ions.
Scale can build up in your hot water heater, pipes, and water-using equipment due to hard water.
3: Aeration: It causes iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) to oxidize. Slow, sand filtering requires enough aeration of the water, particularly if there is insufficient oxygen in the surface water. Shaking water in a vase or allowing it to drip through perforated trays containing small stones are both simple ways to aerate it.
4: Boiling: It is one of the oldest methods. Most germs are killed by bringing the water to a rolling boil, while many are killed at lower temperatures. However, because fuel/charcoal isrequired to boil the water, this method might be costly.