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**What is the Manning equation in Water and WTP?**

Robert Manning came up with the Manning equation in the late 1800s. Manning had no official experience in fluid mechanics or engineering, which is interesting to note. Because of his accounting expertise, he looked for the simplest answer that best fit the data. This is in accordance with the law of parsimony, which stipulates thatthings should not be multiplied unnecessarily and that, in most cases, the simplest explanation is the best. It's an empirical equation because it's generated via curve fitting to observable data rather than first principles obtained from science and physics theories. There's nothing wrong with employing such an equation in engineering as long as we remember that it was derived empirically.

In the field of water resources, the **Manning equation** is commonly used and extremely adaptable formula. It may be used to calculate flow in an open channel, calculate friction losses in a channel, calculate pipe capacity, test the operation of an area-velocity flow meter, and many other things. To compute gravity-driven flows in open channels for uniform steady-state flow, Manning's formula is often employed.

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**A formula for calculating the flow of wastewater through sewers is:**

Where, ‘Q’ means flow in cubic feet per second (CFS) {cubic meters per second (m^{3}/s)}.

‘n’denotes the channel roughness factor or Manning pipe.

‘A’denotes the cross-sectional area of the flow in square feet (sq.ft) {square meters (m^{2})}.

‘R’denotes the hydraulic radius in feet (meters) where {R equals A/P}.

‘P’ is the wetted perimeter of the channel or pipe in feet (meters).

‘S’denotes the slope of the channel or energy grade line in feet per foot (ft/ft) (meters per meter {m/m)}.

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**The Manning’scoefficient “n”**

The roughness or friction factor of the conduit is represented by the **Manning's **‘n’ value, which is a unitless coefficient. Rougher, greater-friction conduits have a higher value, while smoother, lower-friction conduits have a lower va?lue. With the Manning ‘n’ in the denominator (bottom) of the equation, the form of the Manning equation should make sense.

A greater ‘n’ number, which represents increased conduit friction, would result in a lower flow rate if all other factors were equal. This should be self-evident, as additional friction tends to slow down the flow.

The Manning ‘n’ table for each conduit type contains a range of values. This reflects the equation's empirical nature, as well as the fact that conduit frictional qualities vary naturally.

**Note:**Please keep this in mind while analyzing water resource systems, and take into account the inherent unpredictability in the equation when assessing the effects of your engineering decisions.

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