WHAT IS EIA?
Assessment of impact of any activity on environment is called Environmental Impact Assessment. This assessment can be quantified either before or after implementation of the project. So, EIA gives us the data of predicted damage to the environment by certain projects. This knowledge helps in defining the changes required in the plan to make it a sustainable project or in case of a project that is already there, suggest remedial measures which can make the project sustainable.
EIA is not just limited to environmental impact but also accounts socio economic, cultural, and human health impacts.
METHOD OF EIA CALCULATION
1. Screening – Screening of project plan for location, area, type of project and its effect on surroundingarea
2. Scoping – The impact of project on its location, zone, nearby areas and possible mitigation methods
3. Collection of base line data- Base line data is environmental status of thearea.
4. Mitigation measures
5. EIA report – This report gives the actual forecasted effects and how they can be mitigated to cause little to no damage to theenvironment
6. Public Hearing – This is a major step of any project, to inform and keep the public residing nearby to the location in confidence and consultingthem
7. Decision - Impact Assessment Authority along with the experts consult the project-in- charge along with consultant to take the final decision, keeping in mind EIA and EMP (Environment ManagementPlan)
8. Monitoring and implementation of the environmental management plan- The different phases of the project implementation aremonitored
9. Assessment of Alternatives, Delineation of Mitigation Measures and Environmental Impact Assessment Report- For each undertaking, viable options ought to be identified, and environmental attributes compared
10. Once options had been reviewed, a mitigation plan ought to be drawn up for the chosen choice and is supplemented with an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to manual the proponent in the direction of environmentalimprovements
11. Risk assessment- Inventory evaluation and risk possibility and index additionally shape a part of EIAprocedures
STAKEHOLDERS OF THE EIA PROJECT
1. Those who recommend theundertaking
2. The environmental representative who put together EIA on behalf of undertaking proponent
4. The Impact AssessmentAgency
5. Regional Centre
IMPORTANCE OF EIA
1. EIA hyperlinks surroundings with improvement for environmentally secure and sustainable improvement
2. EIA affords a price powerful approach to get rid of or limit the destructive effect of developmentalprojects
3. EIA encourages the model of mitigation techniques withinside the developmentalplan.
4. EIA makes certain that the developmental plan is environmentally sound and withinside the limits of the potential of assimilation and regeneration of theecosystem.