Industrial RO Plant: An Overview
Clean and pure water does not exist. The water found in nature has certain impurities and some dissolved as well as some suspended matter present in it. Normal osmosis is the method or the process in which impure water is allowed to flow through a semi-permeable membrane. The more the concentration is of the dissolved impurities, the more pure water is going to pass to the concentrated side. As we know in osmosis, solvent like water is made to flow through a less to a higher-concentrated solution. Now the question arises that then what happens in RO?
The normal osmosis can be reversed by inducing hydraulic pressure (which is higher than the osmotic pressure) to the solution that is contaminated to get the desired result. Thus RO is the most cost effective method to expel out the salts that are dissolved.
WHAT IS RO (REVERSE OSMOSIS)?
A water treatment process where water is treated by forcing it through a membrane which is semi-permeable and has very tiny pores. This process of water treatment is known as Reverse Osmosis (RO). In this process clean water is obtained, when the impurities that are bigger in size are left behind on the membrane. It is a common method to clean contaminated water by reverse osmosis process.
WHAT IS RO PLANT?
It is a manufacturing plant, where the reverse of normal osmosis takes place. RO process removes the dissolved ions and other impurities.
DESIGN OF INDUSTRIAL RO PLANT
Large no of operators depend on reverse osmosis (RO) systems because they are more cost effective. RO systems can remove or expel the impurities in solvent.
Designing an industrial RO plant needs a lot of considerations and evaluations
- 1. How to evaluate the correct balance between the size of storage tank and system.
- 2. How to imply design programs to build the best and less cost RO system.
- 3. How to keep in mind TCF i.e temperature correction factor, the design guidelines and product data sheets.
- Sizing the system
It is difficult to evaluate the correct size balance between storage tank and system, for this we need to observe two options:
A large tank with a small RO system and a small tank with a large RO system
- Membrane System Design Guidelines
Fouling is because of many materials that are in feed water like bacteria, etc. This fouling of feed water has a huge influence on system membrane.
- Utilizing RO Design Software
ROSA software is used by many OEMs and end users as an RO system design tool to fulfill their required water treatment specifications.
To begin using the design software, enter the concentration of ions in the feed water. Next, select the type of element and try different vessel configurations. The software will complete all of the complex mathematics and produce a complete, simple-to-understand report that predicts water quality and flow rate.
Making a selection based on data sheets can be a difficult process. This is because elements are tested under different conditions. The use of a design program helps overcome this problem by allowing a direct comparison either by running element projections or using active area listed in the element specifications to do a direct element to element comparison based on gallons per day per unit of pressure of net driving pressure. Generally, an element that will meet the application permeate total dissolved solids requirements at the lowest operating pressure and pump cost is selected.
FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED DURING THE DESIGN PROCESS OF INDUSTRIAL RO PLANT
- 1. Source of water.
- 2. Microbiological contaminants.
- 3. Temperature.
- 4. Flow rate.
- 5. Silt density index.
- 6. Pretreatment.
FEATURES OF INDUSTRIAL RO PLANT:
The features of industrial RO plant are as follows:
- 1. The litre per hour capacity (LPH) of an industrial RO plant must be 250, 500, 1000 and 2000.
- 2. The RO plant should be efficient and effective in producing good and high quality water without impurities.
- 3. Maintenance and operation costs should be low, i.e., it should be affordable.
- 4. The operation must be free of noise.
- 5. 90-99 %is perfect as TDS reduction rate.
- 6. Wastage of water should be less.
- 7. Membrane technology should be new and advanced.