How is effluent different from household sewage?
Wastewater is classified into two basic types based on its source. Sewage and industrial wastewater are among them. Sewage is wastewater produced by residential areas such as communities, whereas industrial effluent is wastewater produced by various industries.
The composition and nature of pollutants in domestic sewage and industrial effluent differ. Microorganisms and organic debris, for example, are the primary pollutants in sewage, whereas numerous hazardous compounds are the primary pollutants in industrial effluent.
What is the distinction between sewage and effluent?
1. Sewage is a waste suspension in the form of a liquid or solid, whereas effluent is a few things that waft out like rivers or lakes.
2. Sewage transports human, animal, and other excreta, whereas effluent is wastewater from factories or enterprises.
The principal pollutants are various harmful substances such as acid, alkali, colouring agents, and so on. Industrial wastewater typically has lower levels of microorganisms and organic debris.
The actual composition and features of industrial effluent are determined, by the type of industry and the nature of the raw materials used in the enterprise. Pollutants are produced in industries through the processing of raw materials and the manufacture of products.
Common industries and the characteristics of their effluent
1. Effluent from the leather industry
- Organic matter mainly keratin protein, hairs, some fats and colouring dyes
- BOD: 700 mg/liter
- Color: Strong dark
- Dissolved and suspended solids: High
- pH: 9.5
2. Paper and pulp industry effluent
Paper is made from wood in the paper and pulp industries. These paper industry effluents have the following characteristics:
- Organic matters mainly cellulose, lignin and colouring agents
- Inorganic matters: acids, alkali, bleaching agents etc
- Color: Dark brown
- Suspended solids: 1350 mg/ltr
- Dissolved oxygen (DO): 1650 mg/ltr
3. Dairy industry effluent
Raw milk is used to make a variety of products such as cheese, yoghurt, and butter. These dairy sector effluents have the following characteristics:
· Organic stuff is abundant, primarily casein and lactose.
· Due to the anaerobic breakdown of casein, the odour is highly putrescible and offensive.
· BOD: Elevated
· Effluent is extremely vulnerable to microbial degradation
· Toxic inorganic matter: Extremely low or non-existent
4. Effluent from distilleries and wineries
- Organic matters mainly carbohydrates, organic acids, and some spill alcohol
- BOD: High (29000 mg/ltr)
- COD: High (80000 mg/ltr)
- Suspended solids: High (4000 mg/ltr)
- Color: Strong dark
- pH: Acidic
5. Effluent from the edible oil manufacturing industry
Pollutants are produced in the edible oil business during the neutralization of excess fatty acids, filtration, and distillation of oil. These edible oil industry effluents have the following characteristics:
· Organic matter contains a high concentration of free and hydrolysed fat
· Suspended solids have a high concentration of suspended and dissolved particles.
· BOD: Elevated
· COD: Very high
6. Effluent from the detergent industry
Effluent from the detergent industry primarily contains emulsifying compounds, such as phosphorus, borax, alkyl benzene, sulphonate, and others. Effluent is often alkaline, non-biodegradable, and hazardous to aquatic biota.
Sewage is wastewater created in a residential environment. Sewage has a strong stench and contains a significant number of microbes, organic waste, and other contaminants.
The wastewater from the bathroom, toilet, kitchen, is pure household sewage. However, industrial effluent is sometimes combined with sewage. The actual composition of sewage is determined by the kind, condition, and age of the sewage.
Sewage, in general, contains:
· Sullage is waste water generated in the kitchen, bathroom, and so on
· Excreta from the toilet and the animal farm of humans and animals
How can we assist?
Netsol Water provides a wide range of modern solutions for wastewater treatment, including STPs, ETPs, WWTPs, water softener, membrane technologies, RO Plants, etc.