How is Effluent and Waste discharged in India?
Effluent is processed sewage from a septic tank or sewage treatment facility. It's also known as "trade effluent" or "wastewater."
It is a waste that does not come from kitchens or toilets, as well as surface water or residential sewage. The effluent produced by a process or processes is treated before being dumped into a nearby watercourse if it is clean enough. It is generated and expelled by any industrial or commercial facility, such as a food processing plant or manufacturing enterprise, etc.
Disposal of waste and effluent in India
India is constructing millions of toilets, but the waste management systems in major sections of the nation is a shambles.
In India, almost 80% of sewage drains into rivers, lakes, and ponds. This sewage is untreated and pollutes bodies of water. It also frequently leaks underground, which is concerning because drinking water is mostly obtained from groundwater.
Disposal Rate from households as per Govt. of India
Garbage collection nightmare
In India, just a few villages have a rubbish disposal system. Most inhabitants just dump their garbage outside their homes or, with some effort, they find a location in surrounding agricultural fields.
The discharge of untreated sewage into water channels, including surface and ground waters, is the most significant source of water pollution in India!
Only roughly 12000 million litres per day of treatment capability exists, out of about 38000 million litres per day of sewage output. As a result, there is a significant gap in India between wastewater creation and treatment. Even current treatment capacity is underutilized owing to operational and maintenance issues.
According to the CPCB's survey report, over 39 % of existing plants and sewage pumping stations are not adhering to the general requirements established by the Environmental (Protection) Rules for discharge into streams.Existing treatment capacity in a number of cities is underused, while a large amount of sewage is released without treatment in the same city.
The General Standards fro Discharge of Effluent as per CPCB are-
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