How to design Effluent Treatment Plant to wash Coaches in train?
Effluent Treatment Plants (ETPs) are essential to ensure the safe discharge of wastewater generated during the washing of coaches in trains. These plants are designed to treat the wastewater to ensure that it meets the environmental standards set by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).
In this blog, we will discuss how to design an ETP for washing coaches in trains, including design calculations, process flow diagrams, and detailed working functions.
The design of an ETP for washing coaches in trains is based on the quantity and quality of wastewater generated. The wastewater flow rate is calculated based on the number of coaches washed per day and the water consumption per coach. The average water consumption per coach is considered to be 15,000 liters per wash, with 80% of this being wastewater. Therefore, the wastewater flow rate can be calculated using the following formula:
Wastewater flow rate = Number of coaches washed x 15,000 x 0.8
Once the wastewater flow rate is determined, the plant's capacity can be calculated based on the required treatment efficiency. The CPCB has set the following standards for treated wastewater discharge from washing coaches in trains:
- Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) ≤ 30 mg/l
- Suspended Solids (SS) ≤ 30 mg/l
- Oil and Grease ≤ 10 mg/l
- pH 6.5 to 8.5
The design capacity of the ETP is calculated based on these standards and the wastewater flow rate. Typically, the ETP capacity is designed to treat 80-90% of the wastewater generated.
Process Flow Diagram:
The process flow diagram of an ETP for washing coaches in trains consists of the following stages:
The working function of an ETP for washing coaches in trains is as follows:
- Wastewater generated during the washing of coaches is collected and transported to the ETP.
- The wastewater is screened to remove large objects and then passed through an oil and grease removal tank to remove oil and grease.
- The wastewater is then passed through a primary settling tank, where solids settle at the bottom, and the lighter solids float to the surface.
- The effluent from the primary settling tank is then treated in a biological reactor, where bacteria and other microorganisms break down organic matter and remove nutrients.
- The effluent from the biological reactor is then passed through a tertiary treatment stage, where disinfection is carried out using chlorine or UV radiation.
- The treated water is then discharged into a nearby water body, or it can be used for non-potable purposes such as irrigation, gardening, or flushing.
- The sludge generated during the primary and secondary treatment stages is thickened and dewatered using sludge digesters and sludge drying beds.
- The dewatered sludge can be used as a soil conditioner or fertilizer, or it can be disposed of in a landfill.
- The ETP is monitored regularly to ensure that the treated water meets the CPCB standards for discharge.
Designing an ETP for washing coaches in trains is essential to ensure the safe disposal of wastewater and prevent environmental pollution. The design calculation, process flow diagram, and working function of the ETP discussed in this blog provide a comprehensive understanding of how to design an efficient ETP for washing coaches in trains. The use of ETPs will help to promote sustainable practices and ensure that the railway operations operate in an environmentally responsible manner.
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