Do dairy farms need Total Suspended Solids removal?
Pasteurization or homogenization of milk, butter, cheese, or yoghurt produces wastewater with significant BOD and COD loads, which must be decreased before being sent to municipal treatment facilities. Buttermilk, whey, and their derivatives are common by-products. During the process, a large volume of water is utilized, resulting in effluents comprising dissolved carbohydrates and proteins, lipids, and maybe additive residues.
Following are the properties of these effluents:
1. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), which in untreated effluent averages between 0.8 and 2.5 kilograms per metric tons (kg/t) of milk.
2. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), which is usually 1.5 times the level of BOD.
3. Total suspended solids (TSS), 100–1,000 mg/l
4. Total dissolved solids (TDS): phosphorus (10–100 mg/l), and nitrogen (about 6% of the BOD level).
Sources of dairy waste
Receiving stations, bottling plants, cheese plants, casein plants, condensed milk plants, dried milk plants, and ice cream plants all contribute to the liquid waste generated by a major dairy. Dairy effluents come from a variety of sources, the most common of which are:
1. Product or by-product spills and leaks;
2. Milk or milk products residue in pipelines and equipment prior to cleaning;
3. Cleaning the solutions offthe equipment and the floors;
4. Evaporation-related condensation;
5. Pressings and brines from the cheese making process.
Dairy plant operators can pick from a range of treatment options for their dairy wastes. This might be anything from small-scale land application to large-scale biological waste-water treatment facilities. Some dairy factories may treat their effluents before sending them to a municipal waste-water treatment plant for treatment.
Dairy waste treatment
Chemical and biological treatment are the most common treatment methods utilized in the dairy sector.
1. Mechanical treatment
Screens, grit chambers, skimming tanks, and primary sedimentation tanks or clarifiers are employed in this stage of dairy waste treatment. Large materials that float in nature are removed by screens; otherwise, waste could clog the pipes during subsequent effluent processing. Heavy inorganic debris, such as sand and grit, is removed using chambers. The objective of skimming tanks is to remove oil, grease, wood fragments, and fruit peels, among other things. The sedimentation tank's settling tank or clarifier allows matter in the sedimentation tank that is moving slowly or at rest to settle to the bottom. Sludge is the material that collects at the bottom. Additional treatment of sludge and effluent is required to render them harmless.
2. Chemical treatment
Precipitation is another term for chemical treatment. The precipitation is accomplished by adding flocculating materials (flocculants) to waste water and vigorously mixing it using agitators. Insoluble phosphate is precipitated in the form of very tiny particles, which eventually aggregate into bigger flocs. The bigger flocs settle as primary sludge in the pre-sedimentation basins, where a clear effluent overflows into a biological treatment basin. Sedimentation basins have devices that scrape the sediment into a sump and oblique gutters that convey water away from the clarified surface layers.
3. Biological treatment
Because dairy effluent is largely made up of organic waste, biological degradation is one of the most promising methods for removing it. Sludge produced, particularly during aerobic biodegradation processes, might, nevertheless, cause major and costly disposal issues. The capacity of sludge to adsorb certain organic molecules and even hazardous heavy metals can exacerbate this. Biological treatment, on the other hand, has the advantages of microbial transformations of complex organics and the possibility of heavy metal adsorption by specific bacteria. Biological waste treatment has a lot of possibilities for mixing different types of biological methods to remove specific constituents.
Netsol Water is one of the leading water treatment companies in India with services in the field of WTP manufacturing, WWTP manufacturing, among other services. The company designs and manufactures all in one system that are ideal for treating wastewater and the sludge generated.
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