Sewage or wastewater, in general, refers to the wastewater that is released from domestic locations including homes, institutions, and commercial facilities. Sewage discharge from sinks, bathtubs, showers, kitchens, and toilets is included in this. Sewage treatment is the method used to remove impurities, microorganisms, and other types of pollutants from wastewater, primarily from residential sewage. Sewage treatment uses physical, chemical, and biological techniques to remove impurities and create effluent that is safe for the environment and re-usable.
However, the majority of the world's water bodies are contaminated by the liquid and solid wastes that are created by human settlements and industrial operations. Sewage treatment needs to receive more attention in light of urban development patterns. The objective is to create an effluent that can be released back into the environment or discharged. The primary function of a sewage treatment system, or similar structure is to transport wastewater from its sources to a facility for treatment or disposal.
Design Sewage Treatment Plant for mall High rise building society:
Sewage production from enormous, monitored malls and high rise buildings has significantly increased. To avoid contamination of the earth and water, the sewage must be treated and disposed off. The environmental impact of wastewater from these high rise structures is growing every day. Therefore, it is crucial to install sewage treatment facilities in such buildings that generate a greater volume of wastewater.
The following steps are included in the sewage treatment plant process for such high rise buildings:
1. Preliminary Treatment or pretreatment:
a. The main objective is to prevent damage to plant components and equipment by eliminating water constituents contained in raw sewage or wastewater.
b. Being a first treatment stage, it removes easily separable large suspended solids (rags, bottles, cups, cans and many more) and other materials (oils etc.,) from entering wastewater termed influent.
c. More suspended solids are eliminated at this level owing to the use of bar screens for screening.
d. Sand and small stones that accumulate at the bottom of the chamber are removed using a grit chamber.
e. Since the effluent quality achieved after this treatment is unacceptable, additional wastewater treatment steps should be used.
2. Primary Treatment:
a. Prior to secondary treatment or biological treatment, this treatment of the wastewater is required.
b. Pretreated wastewater enters primary clarifiers or sedimentation tanks, where chemicals like flocculants and coagulants are used.
c. The flow of wastewater is decreased to promote sedimentation, which causes heavier suspended solids to settle to the tank's bottom and lighter particles to rise to the surface and be skimmed off.
d. The leftover liquid is now undergoing the next stage of treatment, while the settled solids are referred to as primary sludge and will be dealt with in a later step.
e. Approximately 60–65% of suspended particles are removed during the first stage of sewage/wastewater treatment.
3. Secondary or biological treatment:
a. It involves both aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment, with the aerobic "activated sludge process" being the method most frequently employed to decrease organic waste.
b. Waste water from the primary tank flows into the aeration tank, which receives air to promote the growth of bacteria that break down organic materials.
e. Next, wastewater that has been aerated (solids plus microbes) is introduced to secondary clarifiers, where heavier solids sink to the bottom and become known as secondary sludge.
f. Some of the sludge will be sent to an aeration tank for additional processing, and the remaining sludge will be combined with primary sludge to begin the sludge digestion process before being discarded or utilised again.
g. This stage makes sure that 80–85% of the organic debris has been eliminated.
4. Tertiary or advanced treatment:
a. In most Sewage Treatment Plants (STP), this is the highest or final treatment stage.
b. The primary goal of this treatment level is to generate better-quality effluent than was accomplished at earlier levels.
c. Depending on the effluent quality, residual suspended and dissolved solids are removed using physical, chemical, or biological processes.
d. It included a disinfection process to get rid of any remaining bacteria in wastewater before it was released or used again.
e. To disinfect, disinfectants like chlorine, ozone, UV radiation, and others are used. Today, treated wastewater, or effluent, is appropriate for reuse or discharge into the environment.
Process flow diagram of ETP for High rise building
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