Essentially, there are two ways to get rid of hardness: ion exchange and chemical precipitation procedures (lime and lime soda ash softening).
How are water softeners designed?
The following are the main elements of a water softener:
1-A digital controller or control valve
· The Softener's component that is significantly more crucial
· Regulates water flow during regeneration cycles
· Positioned above the resin tank
· Timed or metered regeneration is frequently an option
2-Salt brine tank
· The brine tank is used to produce the solution needed for the regeneration of cation resin.
· The softener system uses the salt in the brine tank.
· Salt has been created specifically for the ion exchange procedure, and to maintain the resin's cleanliness. During regeneration, a brine solution created by the reaction of salt and water is passed through the resin.
· With the Control Valve positioned on top, this is the part of a Softener that is most noticeable.
· The resin needed to remove dissolved particles (Ca and Mg) from water, is kept in a water softener's tank.
· Thousands of small beads called "resin beads" are used to fill the tank.
· Water Softeners frequently make use of cation resin in the sodium state.
· It needs to be routinely regenerated with brine solution to preserve softening capacity.
· It substitutes sodium ions for the hardness ions calcium and magnesium that were removed.
· Regeneration with table salt restores capacity when the resin bed is exhausted, and hardness ions start to penetrate.
Capacity of water softener
Knowing the water softener's capacity is necessary to determine:
1. Hardness of raw water in ppm
2. The amount of resin in cubic feet (ft3)
3. Salt dosage in pounds (lbs) per square foot of resin
The resin exchange capacity is dependent on the salt dosage during regeneration. An exchange capacity of 30,000 grains/ft3 resin is typically provided by a salt dosage of 15 lbs/ft3 resin. Salt dose is based on lower salt dosages since they allow for more cost-effective salt usage, while reducing capacity.
Let us understand the designing of water softening plants with an example.
The water has a total hardness of 118 ppm, and the softener regenerates its 6 ft3 of resin using 15 lbs of salt per ft3 of space.
Three easy steps are used to calculate the softening capacity:
1. Convert water hardness in gallons
Total Hardness (ppm) = Total Hardness (gpg) Example: 118 ppm or TH = 6.9 gpg
2. Determine the grain softener capacity
Resin volume times resin exchange rate (usually 30,000 grains/ft3) equals grain volume.
Example: 180,000 grains of capacity for 6 ft3 of resin at 30,000 grains per ft3.
3. Determine the gallons of softening capacity
Softener Capacity (grains) = Max softener capacity in gallons;
Total Hardness (grains per gallon)
Example: 180,000 grains = 26,087 gallons;
What do we offer?
Netsol Water is one of India's top producers of water treatment facilities. In order to provide our customers a solution created to operate with our purification and filtration plant, we have introduced a specific line of water softeners and RO Plants.
We provide design as well as installation of these water treatment facilities, as well as educate our clients on how to avoid water pollution, by employing a long-term approach and cutting-edge wastewater treatment procedures.