Water that develops during the drilling process for oil and gas extraction is known as the formation water. It has a high viscosity and density. In actuality, the chemical characteristics vary depending on the crude extracted, although salts containing K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl, SO42-, CO32-, and HCO3- are commonly found.
Free oil, dispersed oil (tiny oil droplets), and emulsified oil are all types of oil and grease found in formation water. This outflow, like that of generated water, is subject to severe limitations. The method of oil removal is determined by the final use of treated water as well as the content of oil in the produced water.
Underground injection to encourage new oil production, usage for irrigation, livestock or wildlife watering, and habitat are all part of the formation water treatment for reuse and recycling along with a variety of industrial applications (e.g., dust control, vehicle washing, power plant makeup water, and fire control).
HOW TO TREAT FORMATION WATER?
- 1. COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION
They are two terms for the same thing. The first steps in water treatment are commonly coagulation and flocculation. Positively charged chemicals are added to the water. The negative charge of dirt and other dissolved particles in the water is neutralized by the positive charge of these substances. When this happens, the particles connect with the chemicals and create floc, which are bigger particles.
- 2. SEDIMENTATION
Due to its weight, floc settles to the bottom of the water supply during sedimentation. Sedimentation is the term for this settling process.
- 3. FILTRATION
The clear water on top will flow through filters of varied compositions (sand, gravel, and charcoal) and pore diameters to remove dissolved particles such as dust, parasites, bacteria, viruses, and chemicals until the floc has dropped to the bottom of the water supply.
- 4. DISINFECTION
After the water has been filtered, a disinfectant (such as chlorine or chloramine) may be added to kill any leftover parasites, bacteria, or viruses, as well as to protect the water from pathogens when piped to homes and businesses.
Since, every water source has a different composition, a comprehensive water analysis is always suggested to appropriately size the arsenic removal solution that meets the customer's standards. These are the fundamental parameters to understand in order to size the solution correctly:
- ~ Solids dissolved in water in total (TDS)
- ~ Iron content (Fe)
- ~ Hardness ( Ca and Mg )
- ~ Sulfate is a sulphate salt (SO4)
- ~ BOD
- ~ Turbidity
- ~ Heavy metals Content(Pb), (Cd), Cr, (Sb), and (Mo)
- ~ Incoming Energy
- ~ Flow and source of incoming feed