What is Drainage & How is drainage linked to sewage management?
Poor management of sewage disposal system can cause health hazards as well as many other problems. The main problem for solution of waste management is management of excreta.
What is Drainage?
Drainage is the layout of pipelines in which sewage flows to the Sewage treatment plants.
All the drains should be checked regularly for any blockage. Regular cleaning of the drains needs to be carried out, as per cleaning schedule.
The drainage and sewage system should relate to municipal sewage and drainage system. If there is no connection between sewage drains with municipal drainage and sewage system,institutions need to have their own sewage management system in place within the premises.
Construction of septic tank:
Septic tanks provide pre-treatment of wastewater prior to final disposal. Wastewater is retained in these tanks for a period during which suspended solids settle in the storage tanks. The settled sludge and supernatant are anaerobic digested. Digestion significantly reduces the amount of sludge and reduces the amount of organic matter in the liquid.
Inadequate septic tank design, construction, and maintenance are harmful to health. Therefore, it is considered essential to plan a septic tank or sewage system on the premises.
Normally, septic tanks are designed for dirty sewage (faeces and urine). Sewage can be roughly thrown into a garden or lawn and dispersed and absorbed or dumped in septic tanks or drains and flooded or absorbed in the surrounding soil. However, it is important that wastewater from septic tanks is not discharged into sewers or waters under any circumstances without proper treatment.
Location of Septic Tank:
The septic tank should be in an open area towards the sky, as far away from the outside of the building wall as possible, rather than in wetlands or flood-prone areas. It should also be located at such a place where it is accessible for cleaning.
Layout and Construction:
The layout of any STP should be as simple and direct as practicable. The pipes layout should be, in straight lines in both vertical and horizontal planes; however, where bends are unavoidable, they should be long radius bends.Any design criteria that may cause irregularity of flow should be avoided. At junctions of pipes in manholes, direction of flow from a branch connection should make an angle below 45 degrees with the direction of flow in the main pipe. The floor of the tank needs to be watertight and of adequate strength to resist earth movement and to support the weight of the tank, walls, and contents. The floor should have a minimum slope of 1: 10, towards the sludge outlet to facilitate desludging. The walls should be thick to provide adequate strength and water tightness.
Failure Signs in Septic Tanks:
Septic tank should be regularly checked for failure, leakage etc.
Signs that a septic tank is not working properly:
The sewage or the liquid waste from other fixtures flows away very slowly,
Liquid waste overflows from trap,
Top of septic tank is wet,
There is a strong bad odour near the septic tank,
The grass around the tank is lush green and growing well,
These signs may indicate a problem with drainage. Therefore, it is necessary to inspect the drains at the same time of inspection of the septic tank.
For more information, contact Netsol Water.