Septic tanks may be a new concept for many. But they are essential for the home that uses it. If you lived in a house that was always connected to the sewer, you probably wouldn't have heard of a septic tank, let alone what a septic tank is.
This blog analyses what a septic tank is and how it works!
What is a septic tank?
Septic tanks are underwater sand basins used to treat wastewater through biological decomposition and drainage processes. The septic tank uses natural processes and proven technology to treat household wastewater in bathrooms, kitchen drains, and laundry. The septic tank system has a relatively simple structure. This is an underground waterproof container (usually rectangular or circular) made of fiberglass, plastic, or concrete. The septic tank chamber and normally T-shaped outlet prevent sludge and scum from exiting the tank and entering the drainage area. The septic tank system is a kind of simple on-site sewage treatment plant (OSSF) that provides only basic cleaning.
For households with inadequate drainage or not connected to the sewer, septic tanks allow for safe sewage treatment. They work by collecting faeces and sewage in large underground tanks, which are mainly used in rural areas. The septic tank is usually installed 50 meters underground from the home. They usually consist of two chambers or a tank that receives wastewater from the inlet pipe.
Sewage is transported and disposed of via a sewage system, so municipal residents do not need septic tanks. A local water company will maintain this. The septic tank system allows all homes to use water as usual. However, there are additional precautions to be followed. In addition, regular maintenance of the septic tank is required. Homeowners who own septic tanks have additional responsibility to ensure that their tanks do not interfere with the area. For example, if a drain is overloaded with excess liquid, floods can occur, causing drainage to flow to the surface or into the backwater of a toilet or sink.
How does the septic tank work?
Septic tanks decompose organic matter and separate suspended matter (such as oils and fats) and solids from wastewater.
1-The septic tank is connected to two pipes (for inlet and outlet). The inlet pipe is used to carry wastewater out of the house and collect it in septic tanks. It is stored here for a sufficient amount of time to separate solid and liquid waste.
2-The second pipe is the outlet pipe. It can also be called a drainage station. This pipe carries the treated wastewater from the septic tank and distributes it evenly to the ground and waterways. After a while, when the sewage collects, it begins to separate into three layers. The top layeris made up of fats and oils and floats on top of all waste. This is commonly referred to as a "scum". The middle layer contains sewage along with waste particles.
3-The third bottom layer is heavier than water and is composed of particles that form a layer of mud. Bacteria in the tank are great for breaking down solid waste. This allows the liquid to be easily separated and drained. Anything left on the bottom of the tank should be removed regularly as part of general maintenance. This is one of the reasons why septic tanks are just the basic form of wastewater treatment.
Step-by-step process of septic tank:
Water from kitchens and bathrooms flows through the main drainage pipe leading to the septic tank. The septic tank begins to absorb underground sewage. This should be held for enough time for the solids to settle down while the fats and oils are floating on top. After this process, the effluent (sewage) can leave the tank and enter the drain.
This wastewater is carried to a porous surface via a pipe. This allows wastewater to be filtered through the soil. Soil takes, treats and distributes wastewater as it infiltrates from the soil and eventually drains into groundwater. Eventually, sewage penetrates the soil and removes naturally harmful coliforms, viruses, and nutrients.
For more information, contact Netsol Water.